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Wayne Patterson

Bio: Wayne Patterson is an academic researcher from St. Norbert College. The author has contributed to research in topics: Immigration & Frontier. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 28 publications receiving 286 citations. Previous affiliations of Wayne Patterson include University of Pennsylvania & University of California, Berkeley.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The term Diaspora is often used today to describe practically any population that is considered "deterritorialized" or "transnational" as discussed by the authors, that is, which has originated in a land other than that in the United States.
Abstract: “Diaspora” is the term often used today to describe practically any population that is considered “deterritorialized” or “transnational”—that is, which has originated in a land other than that in w...

472 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors identified types of international movements produced by desires for state security and stability (forced and induced migration) circumstances when international migration and the ways states respond to migration are seen as a threat.
Abstract: At high national levels the issues of international migration and refugees capture the attention of state department heads cabinets and ministries of defense and affect internal security and external relations. Migration flows are affected by economic migration for better employment opportunities and by pushes due to domestic violence and persecution. Examples abound: the recent exodus of east Germans to the west; soviet Jewish settlement of the West Bank; repatriation of refugees from Hong Kong; placement of Western migrants at strategic locations as prevention against air strikes; anxieties about Eastern European migration to Western Europe; Uganda refugees in Rwanda; and the defeat of the Kabul regime in Afghanistan. The breakup of empires and countries has created uncertainty among minorities. International migration is also subject to people fleeing from environmental degradation droughts floods famines and civil conflicts. Access to communication and transportation brings greater opportunities for migration. More people want to leave than there is room for them in other countries. The media have inadequately represented the direction of flows. Only a small part of the 17 million migrants have flowed to Western Europe or to the US. The largest flows are among developing countries particularly among Africa South Asia Southeast Asia and the Persian Gulf. There is a need for a security/stability framework in contrast to an international political economy framework for the study of international migration. State policies are being shaped by concerns over internal security and international security. The literature on international migration tends to focus on global economic conditions as a determinant of population movement. Neglected is the role of governments in encouraging or discouraging migration which is not due to economic conditions and neglects the noneconomic considerations of governments in encouraging or discouraging economic migrants. The article focuses on identifying types of international movements produced by desires for state security and stability (forced and induced migration) circumstances when international migration and the ways states respond to migration are seen as a threat.

356 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The article focuses on four major social functions of Korean immigrant churches: providing fellowship for Korean immigrants; maintaining the Korean cultural tradition; providing social services for church members and the Korean community as a whole; and 4) providing social status and positions for Korean adult immigrants.
Abstract: social functions for Korean church members and the Korean commu? nity as a whole. This article has two major objectives. First, it provides descriptive information on the structure of Korean immigrant churches in the United States. More importantly, it systematically analyzes social functions of Korean immigrant churches. The article focuses on four major social functions: 1) providing fellowship for Korean immigrants; 2) maintaining the Korean cultural tradition; 3) providing social services for church members and the Korean commu? nity as a whole; and 4) providing social status and positions for Korean adult immigrants. Interviews with 131 Korean head pastors in New York City are the major data source for this study. Although Korea has never been a major Protestant country, Christians have constituted a large proportion of Korean immigrants to the United States. Historical studies (Choy, 1979; Patterson, 1988) suggest that approximately 40 percent of the pioneer immigrants to Hawaii at the turn of the century were Christians prior to immigration, and that the majority of them at? tended ethnic churches in the United States. The same studies emphasize that ethnic churches became the most important ethnic organizations for Korean immigrants, which helped them to maintain social interactions and cultural traditions. In addition, Korean ethnic churches became centers of the Korean independence movement against Japan (Lyu, 1977). A larger proportion of post-1965 Korean immigrants are affiliated with ethnic churches than are earlier Korean immigrants. Case studies in Los

285 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review of the theory and practice of gene mapping at the close of the 20th century is reviewed, showing that most methods of linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis are similar in a fundamental sense, with the differences being related more to study design and ascertainment than to technical details of the underlying statistical analysis.
Abstract: In the 20th century geneticists began to unravel some of the simpler aspects of the etiology of inherited diseases in humans. The theory of linkage analysis was developed and applied long before the advent of molecular biology, but only the technological advances of the second half of the 20th century made large-scale gene mapping with a dense genome-spanning set of markers a reality. More recently, the primary topic of interest has shifted from simple Mendelian diseases, for which genotypes of some gene are the cause of disease, to more complex diseases, for which genotypes of some set of genes together with environmental factors merely alter the probability that an individual gets the disease, although individual factors are typically insufficient to cause the disease outright. To this end, a great deal of dogma has evolved about the best way to skin this cat, although to date success has been minimal with any approach. We postulate that the main reason for this is a lack of attention to experimental design. Once the data have been ascertained, the most powerful statistical methods will not be able to salvage an inappropriately designed study (Andersen 1990). Each phenotype and/or population mandates its own individually tailored study design to maximize the chances of successful gene mapping. We suggest that careful consideration of the available data from real genotype-phenotype correlation studies (as opposed to oversimplified theoretically tractable models), and the practical feasibility of different ascertainment schemes dictate how one should proceed. In this review we review the theory and practice of gene mapping at the close of the 20th century, showing that most methods of linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis are similar in a fundamental sense, with the differences being related more to study design and ascertainment than to technical details of the underlying statistical analysis. To this end, we propose a new focus in the field of statistical genetics that more explicitly highlights the primacy of study design as the means to increase power for gene mapping.

253 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was found that adolescent girls perceived high social cost attached to protest and dissent, therefore, they accept prevalent conditions and expect to change social situation gradually, and some adolescents undergo stress resulting in behavioral problems.

188 citations