TL;DR: In this paper, a nontargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used to find the differential composition between Zhongning goji berries (ZNG) and non-ZNG.
TL;DR: A nontargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to find the differential composition between ZNG and NZNG and showed that two sets of combinative biomarkers to distinguish ZNG from NZNG with good sensitivity and specificity.
TL;DR: An overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products is provided in this paper.
Abstract: Berries represent one of the most important and high-valued group of modern-day health-beneficial "superfoods" whose dietary consumption has been recognized to be beneficial for human health for a long time. In addition to being delicious, berries are rich in nutrients, vitamins, and several bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and hydrolysable tannins. However, due to their high value, berries and berry-based products are often subject to fraudulent adulteration, commonly for economical gain, but also unintentionally due to misidentification of species. Deliberate adulteration often comprises the substitution of high-value berries with lower value counterparts and mislabeling of product contents. As adulteration is deceptive toward customers and presents a risk for public health, food authentication through different methods is applied as a countermeasure. Although many authentication methods have been developed in terms of fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost analysis and have been applied in the authentication of a myriad of food products and species, their application on berries and berry-based products is still limited. The present review provides an overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products. We provide an overview of the earlier use and recent advances of these methods, as well as discuss the advances and drawbacks related to their application.
TL;DR: Optimal analytical methods for metabolic profiling in the fruits of three Solanaceae species, reported here for the first time to the authors' knowledge, revealed compounds discriminating the Lycium species were more abundant in Lycium chinense, whereas Lycium barbarum accumulated more lycibarbarphenylpropanoids A-B, coumaric acid, fructose and glucose.
Abstract: Metabolic profile is a key component of fruit quality, which is a challenge to study due to great compound diversity, especially in species with high nutritional value. This study presents optimized analytical methods for metabolic profiling in the fruits of three Solanaceae species: Lycium barbarum, Lycium chinense and Solanumlycopersicum. It includes the most important chemical classes involved in nutrition and taste, i.e., carotenoids, phenolic compounds and primary compounds. Emphasis has been placed on the systematic achievement of good extraction yields, sample stability, and high response linearity using common LC-ESI-TQ-MS and GC-EI-MS apparatuses. A set of 13 carotenoids, 46 phenolic compounds and 67 primary compounds were profiled in fruit samples. Chemometrics revealed metabolic markers discriminating Lycium and Solanum fruits but also Lycium barbarum and Lycium chinense fruits and the effect of the crop environment. Typical tomato markers were found to be lycopene, carotene, glutamate and GABA, while lycibarbarphenylpropanoids and zeaxanthin esters characterized goji (Lycium spp.) fruits. Among the compounds discriminating the Lycium species, reported here for the first time to our knowledge, chlorogenic acids, asparagine and quinic acid were more abundant in Lycium chinense, whereas Lycium barbarum accumulated more lycibarbarphenylpropanoids A-B, coumaric acid, fructose and glucose.
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors presented a comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents of YGMM and prototypes in plasma, and the data analysis strategy developed in this study showed high efficiency in the structural elucidations.
Abstract: Yiganmingmu oral liquid (YGMM), a well known over-the-counter (OTC) drug in China, is composed of 12 types of valuable herbal medicines and has been widely used in clinical for the treatment of soreness and weakness of waist and knees, dizziness, memory loss, and fatigue. However, the chemical compositions of YGMM and its absorbed compounds in plasma remain unclear. Since chemical investigation is the first important step to reveal effects and action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in this study, based on the self built components database, systematic characterization of the chemical profile of YGMM in vitro was carried out by using a reliable UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method. Moreover, to obtain better understanding of the absorbed prototypes in plasma, serum pharmacochemistry analysis of YGMM after oral administration was conducted by using cynomolgus monkeys as animal model. A total of 667 constituents from the 12 single herbal medicines were collected in the self built components database by searching the reported literatures, and 415 of them were initially screened as candidate compounds in YGMM by comparison of their experimental accurate mass measurements with those theoretical values. After that, 117 compounds including 17 phenolic acids, 25 flavonoids, 4 alkaloids, 10 phthalides, 5 monoterpenes, 8 triterpenoid saponins, 9 anthraquinones, and 39 other compounds, were unambiguously identified or tentatively characterized by analysing their MS/MS fragmentation patterns, and also by comparison with reference standards and those data reported in the literatures. 61 prototypes absorbed in plasma of cynomolgus monkey, including 13 phenolic acids, 21 flavonoids, 8 phthalides, 3 monoterpenes, 4 triterpenoid saponins, and 12 other compounds were tentatively assigned by serum pharmacochemistry analysis after oral administration. It was the first comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents of YGMM and prototypes in plasma, and the data analysis strategy developed in this study showed high efficiency in the structural elucidations. The results might provide scientific evidence for further research on material basis of YGMM.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors described the chemical profile of PCB using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, which would improve our understanding of the substance basis of PCB and is helpful to the PCB further quality evaluation.
01 Jan 2021
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method to understand the full genetic diversity and pathogenicity of leprosy and tuberculosis using the conventional genomic and proteomic approaches, which can assist the clinicians in making a judgment.
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy (caused by mycobacterial pathogens) are two age-old infections, which we are facing even today. India is a major contributor to the global burden of leprosy and tuberculosis, which adversely affects the diverse communities as well as having a prevalence in different parts of the country. Timely diagnostics and effective treatment are very challenging, and the emergence of drug resistance has further complicated the management of these mycobacterial diseases. Various lineages of these mycobacterial pathogens show varying phenotypes in terms of clinical presentations and treatment outcomes. Altogether these factors make it further difficult to understand the full genetic diversity and pathogenicity of these pathogens using the conventional genomic and proteomic approaches. However, thanks to the recent technological advances in the genomics and proteomics field, many of these constraints have been suitably addressed. While it is relatively simpler to produce the omics data in a high-throughput manner, the bottleneck now is the pace to assimilate this large data into some useful information to reach a relevant, meaningful conclusion in a timely manner to assist the clinician in making a judgment.