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Wen Xuan Tang

Bio: Wen Xuan Tang is an academic researcher from Southeast University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Metamaterial & Surface plasmon polariton. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 49 publications receiving 1423 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ability of the anisotropic coding metasurfaces to generate a beam splitter and realize simultaneous anomalous reflections and polarization conversions, thus providing powerful control of differently polarized electromagnetic waves is demonstrated.
Abstract: Metamaterials based on effective media can be used to produce a number of unusual physical properties (for example, negative refraction and invisibility cloaking) because they can be tailored with effective medium parameters that do not occur in nature. Recently, the use of coding metamaterials has been suggested for the control of electromagnetic waves through the design of coding sequences using digital elements ‘0’ and ‘1,' which possess opposite phase responses. Here we propose the concept of an anisotropic coding metamaterial in which the coding behaviors in different directions are dependent on the polarization status of the electromagnetic waves. We experimentally demonstrate an ultrathin and flexible polarization-controlled anisotropic coding metasurface that functions in the terahertz regime using specially designed coding elements. By encoding the elements with elaborately designed coding sequences (both 1-bit and 2-bit sequences), the x- and y-polarized waves can be anomalously reflected or independently diffused in three dimensions. The simulated far-field scattering patterns and near-field distributions are presented to illustrate the dual-functional performance of the encoded metasurface, and the results are consistent with the measured results. We further demonstrate the ability of the anisotropic coding metasurfaces to generate a beam splitter and realize simultaneous anomalous reflections and polarization conversions, thus providing powerful control of differently polarized electromagnetic waves. The proposed method enables versatile beam behaviors under orthogonal polarizations using a single metasurface and has the potential for use in the development of interesting terahertz devices. An artificial material that controls electromagnetic waves of different polarization independently has been demonstrated by a team in China. Tie Jun Cui from the Southeast University and co-workers have created a metamaterial that can, for example, split incoming unpolarized radiation so that horizontally polarized light goes one way while vertically polarized light goes the other. Metamaterials are structures that can be engineered to have optical properties not found in natural materials, and they consist of a repeated pattern of elements that are smaller than the wavelength of light. The researchers used two types of element, simple squares and dumbbells, which enabled them to independently control beams of long-wavelength radiation known as terahertz waves having differing polarizations. By reducing the size of the metamaterial elements, the same idea could also be applied to visible light.

382 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study demonstrates that the scattering patterns that are directly calculated from the coding pattern using the Fourier transform have excellent agreements to the numerical simulations based on realistic coding structures, providing an efficient method in optimizing coding patterns to achieve predesigned scattering beams.
Abstract: The concept of coding metasurface makes a link between physically metamaterial particles and digital codes, and hence it is possible to perform digital signal processing on the coding metasurface to realize unusual physical phenomena. Here, this study presents to perform Fourier operations on coding metasurfaces and proposes a principle called as scattering-pattern shift using the convolution theorem, which allows steering of the scattering pattern to an arbitrarily predesigned direction. Owing to the constant reflection amplitude of coding particles, the required coding pattern can be simply achieved by the modulus of two coding matrices. This study demonstrates that the scattering patterns that are directly calculated from the coding pattern using the Fourier transform have excellent agreements to the numerical simulations based on realistic coding structures, providing an efficient method in optimizing coding patterns to achieve predesigned scattering beams. The most important advantage of this approach over the previous schemes in producing anomalous single-beam scattering is its flexible and continuous controls to arbitrary directions. This work opens a new route to study metamaterial from a fully digital perspective, predicting the possibility of combining conventional theorems in digital signal processing with the coding metasurface to realize more powerful manipulations of electromagnetic waves.

314 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a transmission-type coding metasurface is proposed to bend normally incident terahertz beams in anomalous directions and generate nondiffractive Bessel beams in normal and oblique directions.
Abstract: Coding metasurfaces, composed of an array of coding particles with discrete phase responses, are encoded with predesigned coding sequences to manipulate wavefronts of electromagnetic (EM) waves and realize novel functionalities such as anomalous beam deflection, broadband diffusion, and polarization conversion. Such a new concept can be viewed as a bridge linking metamaterial and digital codes, yielding the investigation of metamaterials from a digital perspective and eventually the realization of real-time control of EM waves. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a transmission-type coding metasurface to bend normally incident terahertz beams in anomalous directions and generate nondiffractive Bessel beams in normal and oblique directions. To overcome the larger reflection and strong Fabry–Perot resonance that usually originate from a thick silicon substrate, a free-standing design is presented for the coding particle, which is formed by stacking three metallic layers with four polyimide space...

157 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed dynamical remote‐tuning metasurface paves a way for constructing unprecedented digital meetasurfaces in a noncontact remote fashion.
Abstract: Since the advent of digital coding metamaterials, a new paradigm is unfolded to sample, compute and program electromagnetic waves in real time with one physical configuration. However, one inconvenient truth is that actively tunable building blocks such as diodes, varactors, and biased lines must be individually controlled by a computer-assisted field programmable gate array and physically connected by electrical wires to the power suppliers. This issue becomes more formidable when more elements are needed for more advanced and multitasked metadevices and metasystems. Here, a remote-mode metasurface is proposed and realized that is addressed and tuned by illuminating light. By tuning the intensity of light-emitting diode light, a digital coding metasurface composed of such light-addressable elements enables dynamically reconfigurable radiation beams in a control-circuitry-free way. Experimental demonstration is validated at microwave frequencies. The proposed dynamical remote-tuning metasurface paves a way for constructing unprecedented digital metasurfaces in a noncontact remote fashion.

135 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general theory of space-time modulated digital coding metasurfaces is proposed to obtain simultaneous manipulations of EM waves in both space and frequency domains, i.e., to control the propagation direction and harmonic power distribution simultaneously.
Abstract: The recently proposed digital coding metasurfaces make it possible to control electromagnetic (EM) waves in real time, and allow the implementation of many different functionalities in a programmable way. However, current configurations are only space-encoded, and do not exploit the temporal dimension. Here, we propose a general theory of space-time modulated digital coding metasurfaces to obtain simultaneous manipulations of EM waves in both space and frequency domains, i.e., to control the propagation direction and harmonic power distribution simultaneously. As proof-of-principle application examples, we consider harmonic beam steering, beam shaping, and scattering-signature control. For validation, we realize a prototype controlled by a field-programmable gate array, which implements the harmonic beam steering via an optimized space-time coding sequence. Numerical and experimental results, in good agreement, demonstrate good performance of the proposed approach, with potential applications to diverse fields such as wireless communications, cognitive radars, adaptive beamforming, holographic imaging.

608 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Diverse electromagnetic responses of a programmable metasurface with a relatively large scale have been investigated, where multiple functionalities are obtained on the same surface and various EM phenomena including anomalous reflection, diffusion, beam steering and beam forming are successfully demonstrated.
Abstract: Diverse electromagnetic (EM) responses of a programmable metasurface with a relatively large scale have been investigated, where multiple functionalities are obtained on the same surface. The unit cell in the metasurface is integrated with one PIN diode, and thus a binary coded phase is realized for a single polarization. Exploiting this anisotropic characteristic, reconfigurable polarization conversion is presented first. Then the dynamic scattering performance for two kinds of sources, i.e. a plane wave and a point source, is carefully elaborated. To tailor the scattering properties, genetic algorithm, normally based on binary coding, is coupled with the scattering pattern analysis to optimize the coding matrix. Besides, inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) technique is also introduced to expedite the optimization process of a large metasurface. Since the coding control of each unit cell allows a local and direct modulation of EM wave, various EM phenomena including anomalous reflection, diffusion, beam steering and beam forming are successfully demonstrated by both simulations and experiments. It is worthwhile to point out that a real-time switch among these functionalities is also achieved by using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). All the results suggest that the proposed programmable metasurface has great potentials for future applications.

466 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study demonstrates that the scattering patterns that are directly calculated from the coding pattern using the Fourier transform have excellent agreements to the numerical simulations based on realistic coding structures, providing an efficient method in optimizing coding patterns to achieve predesigned scattering beams.
Abstract: The concept of coding metasurface makes a link between physically metamaterial particles and digital codes, and hence it is possible to perform digital signal processing on the coding metasurface to realize unusual physical phenomena. Here, this study presents to perform Fourier operations on coding metasurfaces and proposes a principle called as scattering-pattern shift using the convolution theorem, which allows steering of the scattering pattern to an arbitrarily predesigned direction. Owing to the constant reflection amplitude of coding particles, the required coding pattern can be simply achieved by the modulus of two coding matrices. This study demonstrates that the scattering patterns that are directly calculated from the coding pattern using the Fourier transform have excellent agreements to the numerical simulations based on realistic coding structures, providing an efficient method in optimizing coding patterns to achieve predesigned scattering beams. The most important advantage of this approach over the previous schemes in producing anomalous single-beam scattering is its flexible and continuous controls to arbitrary directions. This work opens a new route to study metamaterial from a fully digital perspective, predicting the possibility of combining conventional theorems in digital signal processing with the coding metasurface to realize more powerful manipulations of electromagnetic waves.

314 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview on the development of metasurfaces, including both homogeneous and inhomogeneous ones, focusing particularly on their working principles, the fascinating wave-manipulation effects achieved both statically and dynamically, and the representative applications so far realized.
Abstract: Metasurfaces are ultrathin metamaterials consisting of planar electromagnetic (EM) microstructures (e.g., meta-atoms) with pre-determined EM responses arranged in specific sequences. Based on careful structural designs on both meta-atoms and global sequences, one can realize homogenous and inhomogeneous metasurfaces that can possess exceptional capabilities to manipulate EM waves, serving as ideal candidates to realize ultracompact and highly efficient EM devices for next-generation integration-optics applications. In this paper, we present an overview on the development of metasurfaces, including both homogeneous and inhomogeneous ones, focusing particularly on their working principles, the fascinating wave-manipulation effects achieved both statically and dynamically, and the representative applications so far realized. Finally, we also present our own perspectives on possible future directions of this fast-developing research field in the conclusion.

300 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors systematically summarized and analyzed the information and digital convolution aspects of metamaterials and metasurfaces with particular emphasis on the information-and-digital convolution aspect.
Abstract: Traditionally, “metamaterials” have been described by effective medium parameters due to the subwavelength nature of unit particles. The continuous nature of medium parameters makes traditional metamaterials behave as analog metamaterials. Recently, the concept of coding metamaterials or “metasurfaces” has been proposed, in which metamaterials are characterized by digital coding particles of “0” and “1” with opposite phase responses. It has been demonstrated that electromagnetic waves can be manipulated by changing the coding sequences of “0” and “1”. The coding particles provide a link between the physical world and digital world, leading to digital metamaterials and even field programmable metamaterials, which can be used to control electromagnetic waves in real time. The digital coding representation of metamaterials or metasurfaces can also allow the concepts and signal processing methods in information science to be introduced to physical metamaterials, thereby realizing extreme control of electromagnetic waves. Such studies have set the foundation of information metamaterials and metasurfaces. In this review article, the coding, digital, and field programmable metamaterials and metasurfaces are systematically summarized and analyzed with particular emphases on the information and digital convolution aspects. The future trend of information metamaterial/metasurface is predicted, including software-defined metamaterials/metasurfaces and cognitive metamaterials/metasurfaces.

287 citations