Bio: Wenxiang Wang is an academic researcher from University of Electronic Science and Technology of China. The author has contributed to research in topics: Traveling-wave tube & Dispersion relation. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 178 publications receiving 1144 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, a novel slow-wave structure called sine waveguide has been proposed to develop a wideband high-power terahertz radiation source, which evolves from a rectangular waveguide oscillating with sinusoid along its longitudinal direction.
Abstract: A novel slow-wave structure called sine waveguide has been proposed to develop a wideband high-power terahertz radiation source. The sine waveguide evolves from a rectangular waveguide oscillating with sinusoid along its longitudinal direction. This letter reports the electromagnetic characteristics of the sine waveguide and its effective surface plasmon amplification mechanism. From our calculation, this circuit structure possesses low ohmic losses and reflection and can be applied to produce terahertz waves ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 THz with several hundreds of watts. Moreover, the maximum gain and interaction efficiency may reach 37.7 dB and 9.6%, respectively.
TL;DR: In this article, a V-shaped microstrip meander-line slow-wave structure was proposed for use in a lowvoltage high-efficiency widebandwidth miniature millimeter-wave traveling-wave tube (TWT).
Abstract: In this paper, a novel V-shaped microstrip meander-line slow-wave structure (SWS) is proposed for use in a low-voltage high-efficiency wide-bandwidth miniature millimeter-wave traveling-wave tube (TWT). The electromagnetic characteristics and the interaction between the sheet electron beam and slow wave in this SWS are obtained by utilizing the CST Microwave Studio and Particle Studio codes, respectively. From our calculations, it is predicted that, at a beam voltage of 3.7 kV and a beam current of 100 mA, an output power greater than 30 W can be obtained ranging from 75 to 100 GHz, and this V-shaped microstrip meander-line TWT will be helpful for a W-band millimeter-wave power module.
TL;DR: In this article, a W-band traveling-wave tube (TWT) with a staggered double-vane slow-wave structure combined with a sheet electron beam was designed to achieve an output power of over 1 kW.
Abstract: A design study for a W-band traveling-wave tube (TWT) using a staggered double-vane slow-wave structure combined with a sheet electron beam shows that an output power of over 1 kW should be possible. Numerical eigenmode calculations indicated that the structure has a strong longitudinal component of electric field for interaction with the electron beam. A novel input and output coupler was proposed that can produce good input and output matches. Finally, a TWT model with moderate dimensions was established. The particle-in-cell simulation results revealed that the tube can be expected to produce over 1 kW of peak power in the range from 90 to 95 GHz, assuming an RF input signal with a peak power of 0.15 W and a beam power of 10.3 kW. The corresponding conversion efficiency values vary from 9.87% to 12.15%, and the maximum gain is 39.2 dB at 93 GHz.
TL;DR: In this article, a 35 GHz 45kV third-harmonic complex cavity gyrotron with a permanent magnet system was designed, constructed, and tested with a pulse output power of 147.3 kW at a beam voltage of 45 kV with beam current of 32.2 A.
Abstract: A systematic theoretical and experimental study on a 35-GHz 45-kV third-harmonic gyrotron with a permanent magnet system is presented in this paper. A complex cavity with gradual transition and a diode magnetron injection gun (MIG) are employed in the gyrotron. A self-consistent field nonlinear theoretical investigation and numerical simulation for electron beam interaction with RF fields are given. The diode MIG is simulated numerically utilizing our code in detail. The permanent magnet system provided the maximum axial magnetic field of about 4.5 kG in the cavity region of the gyrotron. The Ka band third-harmonic complex cavity gyrotron with a permanent magnet system has been designed, constructed, and tested. A pulse output power of 147.3 kW was obtained at a beam voltage of 45 kV with beam current of 32.2 A, corresponding to an efficiency of 10.2%.
TL;DR: In this paper, a backward wave oscillator was proposed by utilizing a concise sine waveguide slow-wave structure combined with sheet electron beam to operate at terahertz frequency band.
Abstract: A novel backward wave oscillator was proposed by utilizing a concise sine waveguide slow-wave structure combined with sheet electron beam to operate at terahertz frequency band. First, the design method was described, and the dispersion curve and interaction impedance of the sine waveguide were calculated, then the device oscillation frequency and operating voltage were determined. Next, the circuit transmission losses were learned over the tunable frequency range. Finally, the particle-in-cell simulation method was applied to predict its signal generation performance. The investigation results show that, the backward wave oscillator can produce over 1.9 -W peak power output at the central operating frequency of 1-THz under 27-kV operating voltage and 5-mA beam current. And the interaction efficiency at 1-THz is more than 1.4% with a circuit length of 7.2-mm. It, therefore, will be considered as a promising watt-class terahertz radiation source.
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: The 2017 roadmap of terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz-30 THz) as mentioned in this paper provides a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provides an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds.
Abstract: Science and technologies based on terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz–30 THz) have developed rapidly over the last 30 years. For most of the 20th Century, terahertz radiation, then referred to as sub-millimeter wave or far-infrared radiation, was mainly utilized by astronomers and some spectroscopists. Following the development of laser based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 1980s and 1990s the field of THz science and technology expanded rapidly, to the extent that it now touches many areas from fundamental science to 'real world' applications. For example THz radiation is being used to optimize materials for new solar cells, and may also be a key technology for the next generation of airport security scanners. While the field was emerging it was possible to keep track of all new developments, however now the field has grown so much that it is increasingly difficult to follow the diverse range of new discoveries and applications that are appearing. At this point in time, when the field of THz science and technology is moving from an emerging to a more established and interdisciplinary field, it is apt to present a roadmap to help identify the breadth and future directions of the field. The aim of this roadmap is to present a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provide an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds. To be able to achieve this aim, we have invited a group of international experts to write 18 sections that cover most of the key areas of THz science and technology. We hope that The 2017 Roadmap on THz science and technology will prove to be a useful resource by providing a wide ranging introduction to the capabilities of THz radiation for those outside or just entering the field as well as providing perspective and breadth for those who are well established. We also feel that this review should serve as a useful guide for government and funding agencies.
TL;DR: In this paper, an overview of the range of available terahertz sources, emphasizing recent developments, is given, and the focus then narrows to the sources that rely on surface phenomena.
Abstract: Bibliometric data set the scene by illustrating the growth of terahertz work and the present interest in terahertz science and technology. After locating terahertz sources within the broader context of terahertz systems, an overview is given of the range of available sources, emphasizing recent developments. The focus then narrows to terahertz sources that rely on surface phenomena. Three are highlighted. Optical rectification, usually thought of as a bulk process, may in addition exhibit a surface contribution, which, in some cases, predominates. Transient surface currents, for convenience often separated into drift and diffusion currents, are well understood according to Monte Carlo modelling. Finally, terahertz surface emission by mechanical means—in the absence of photoexcitation—is described.
TL;DR: A review of the development of high-power gyrotron oscillators for long-pulse or CW operation and pulsed gyrotrons for many applications can be found in this article.
Abstract: This paper presents a review of the experimental achievements related to the development of high-power gyrotron oscillators for long-pulse or CW operation and pulsed gyrotrons for many applications. In addition, this work gives a short overview on the present development status of frequency step-tunable and multi-frequency gyrotrons, coaxial-cavity multi-megawatt gyrotrons, gyrotrons for technological and spectroscopy applications, relativistic gyrotrons, large orbit gyrotrons (LOGs), quasi-optical gyrotrons, fast- and slow-wave cyclotron autoresonance masers (CARMs), gyroklystrons, gyro-TWT amplifiers, gyrotwystron amplifiers, gyro-BWOs, gyro-harmonic converters, gyro-peniotrons, magnicons, free electron masers (FEMs), and dielectric vacuum windows for such high-power mm-wave sources. Gyrotron oscillators (gyromonotrons) are mainly used as high-power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), stability control, and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for clean generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The maximum pulse length of commercially available 140 GHz, megawatt-class gyrotrons employing synthetic diamond output windows is 30 min (CPI and European KIT-SPC-THALES collaboration). The world record parameters of the European tube are as follows: 0.92 MW output power at 30-min pulse duration, 97.5% Gaussian mode purity, and 44% efficiency, employing a single-stage depressed collector (SDC) for energy recovery. A maximum output power of 1.5 MW in 4.0-s pulses at 45% efficiency was generated with the QST-TOSHIBA (now CANON) 110-GHz gyrotron. The Japan 170-GHz ITER gyrotron achieved 1 MW, 800 s at 55% efficiency and holds the energy world record of 2.88 GJ (0.8 MW, 60 min) and the efficiency record of 57% for tubes with an output power of more than 0.5 MW. The Russian 170-GHz ITER gyrotron obtained 0.99 (1.2) MW with a pulse duration of 1000 (100) s and 53% efficiency. The prototype tube of the European 2-MW, 170-GHz coaxial-cavity gyrotron achieved in short pulses the record power of 2.2 MW at 48% efficiency and 96% Gaussian mode purity. Gyrotrons with pulsed magnet for various short-pulse applications deliver Pout = 210 kW with τ = 20 μs at frequencies up to 670 GHz (η ≅ 20%), Pout = 5.3 kW at 1 THz (η = 6.1%), and Pout = 0.5 kW at 1.3 THz (η = 0.6%). Gyrotron oscillators have also been successfully used in materials processing. Such technological applications require tubes with the following parameters: f > 24 GHz, Pout = 4–50 kW, CW, η > 30%. The CW powers produced by gyroklystrons and FEMs are 10 kW (94 GHz) and 36 W (15 GHz), respectively. The IR FEL at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in the USA obtained a record average power of 14.2 kW at a wavelength of 1.6 μm. The THz FEL (NOVEL) at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Russia achieved a maximum average power of 0.5 kW at wavelengths 50–240 μm (6.00–1.25 THz).
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report the short-pulse operation of a 460 GHz gyrotron oscillator both at the fundamental (near 230 GHz) and second harmonic (near 460 GHz) of electron cyclotron resonance.
Abstract: We report the short-pulse operation of a 460 GHz gyrotron oscillator both at the fundamental (near 230 GHz) and second harmonic (near 460 GHz) of electron cyclotron resonance. During operation in a microsecond pulse length regime with 13-kV beam voltage and 110-mA beam current, the instrument generates several watts of power in two second harmonic modes, the TE/sub 2,6,1/ at 456.15 GHz and the TE/sub 0,6,1/ at 458.56 GHz. Operation in the fundamental modes, including the TE/sub 0,3,1/ mode at 237.91 GHz and the TE/sub 2,3,1/ at 233.15 GHz, is observed at output powers up to 70 W. Further, we demonstrate broadband continuous frequency tuning of the fundamental modes of the oscillator over a range of more than 2 GHz through variation of the magnetic field alone. We interpret these results in terms of smooth transitions between higher order axial modes of the resonator. The 460 GHz gyrotron is currently being processed for continuous duty operation, where it will serve as a microwave source for sensitivity-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (dynamic nuclear polarization) studies at 16 T (700 MHz /sup 1/H), a field strength which is two-fold higher than has been accessible with previous technology.
•01 Aug 2003
TL;DR: In this article, an approach for remote detection of physiological activity is described, which involves obtaining information concerning respiration and heart function using an oscillator and a receiver configured to observe changes in the amplitude of the electromagnetic signal reflected by the subject.
Abstract: Apparatus and methods for performing remote detection of physiological activity are described. One aspect of the invention involves obtaining information concerning respiration and heart function. In one embodiment, the invention includes a source (16) containing an oscillator configured to illuminate the subject with electromagnetic signal beam and a receiver (18) configured to observe changes in the amplitude of the electromagnetic signal reflected by the subject.