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Wesley G. Skogan

Bio: Wesley G. Skogan is an academic researcher from Northwestern University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Community policing & Criminal justice. The author has an hindex of 48, co-authored 163 publications receiving 11584 citations. Previous affiliations of Wesley G. Skogan include Loyola University Chicago & Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora.


Papers
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Book
28 May 1992
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight the relationship between disorder and neighborhood life, and propose to expand the scope of the traditionally popular "crime" agenda to encompass other pressing features of urban life.
Abstract: The purpose of this book is to add a new concern to the list of issues contending for position on the nation's urban policy agenda. By highlighting the relationship between disorder and neighborhood life, Disorder and Decline attempts to expand the scope of the traditionally popular "crime" agenda to encompass other pressing features of urban life. To do this, it was necessary to demonstrate that issues like vandalism and public drinking are somehow as "important" as burglary and drug abuse; thus the book's focus on the serious consequences of disorder for community stability. Because many disorder problems clearly are unresponsive to traditional criminal justice solutions, the book also called for thinking more expansively about what can be done to counter community decline, in particular by the police.

976 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Meta-analysis as discussed by the authors is an approach that systematically analyzes and synthesizes research, treating a field of research as a complex set of data to be accumulated and integrated, and it has much in common with survey research.
Abstract: How is a social scientist to cope with the cornucopia of already existing studies in his or her area? How to draw useable conclusions from a body of work that might run to 5000 items? Traditional narrative integration fails to usefully portray such accumulated knowledge. Meta-analysis is an approach that systematically analyzes and synthesizes research. This book is its first full explanation. Meta-analysis treats a field of research as a complex set of data to be accumulated and integrated. As such it has much in common with survey research -- though, as causal relationships may have already been established by the studies being surveyed meta-analysis need not suffer from the limitations of survey research as a tool for establishing causes. Besides showing how to derive generalizations from very large and divergent bodies of research, the authors also provide ways for enhancing the findings of few or small research studies, and techniques for evaluating the findings of individual experiments by contrasting them with the combined weight of findings from other studies. Their approach does not enforce uniformity on different research.Instead, it is a way to enhance clarity, explicitness and openness in research reviews. Its use will speed the first step of most research projects -- to see what has been done before -- and will help researchers to avoid costly research duplication.

726 citations

Book
14 Jul 1997
TL;DR: The authors examines why Chicago made the transition, how it did it, and how well it worked, and examines why it did and why it didn't work in the Chicago Police Department.
Abstract: Police departments across the USA are busily "reinventing" themselves, adopting a new style known as "community policing". Police departments that succeed in adopting this new stance have an entirely different relationship to the public that they serve. Chicago made the transition, and this book examines why it did, how it did it, and how well it worked.

675 citations

Book
06 Apr 2004
TL;DR: Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing as discussed by the authors explores police work in the new century and provides answers to the most basic questions: What do police do? It reviews how police work is organized, explores the expanding responsibilities of police, examines the increasing diversity among police employees, and discusses the complex interactions between officers and citizens.
Abstract: Because police are the most visible face of government power for most citizens, they are expected to deal effectively with crime and disorder and to be impartial. Producing justice through the fair, and restrained use of their authority. The standards by which the public judges police success have become more exacting and challenging. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing explores police work in the new century. It replaces myths with research findings and provides recommendations for updated policy and practices to guide it. The book provides answers to the most basic questions: What do police do? It reviews how police work is organized, explores the expanding responsibilities of police, examines the increasing diversity among police employees, and discusses the complex interactions between officers and citizens. It also addresses such topics as community policing, use of force, racial profiling, and evaluates the success of common police techniques, such as focusing on crime ?hot spots.? It goes on to look at the issue of legitimacy?how the public gets information about police work, and how police are viewed by different groups, and how police can gain community trust. Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing will be important to anyone concerned about police work: policy makers, administrators, educators, police supervisors and officers, journalists, and interested citizens.

598 citations

Book
01 Jul 1981
TL;DR: Meta-analysis as mentioned in this paper is an approach that systematically analyzes and synthesizes research, treating a field of research as a complex set of data to be accumulated and integrated, and it has much in common with survey research.
Abstract: How is a social scientist to cope with the cornucopia of already existing studies in his or her area? How to draw useable conclusions from a body of work that might run to 5000 items? Traditional narrative integration fails to usefully portray such accumulated knowledge. Meta-analysis is an approach that systematically analyzes and synthesizes research. This book is its first full explanation. Meta-analysis treats a field of research as a complex set of data to be accumulated and integrated. As such it has much in common with survey research -- though, as causal relationships may have already been established by the studies being surveyed meta-analysis need not suffer from the limitations of survey research as a tool for establishing causes. Besides showing how to derive generalizations from very large and divergent bodies of research, the authors also provide ways for enhancing the findings of few or small research studies, and techniques for evaluating the findings of individual experiments by contrasting them with the combined weight of findings from other studies. Their approach does not enforce uniformity on different research.Instead, it is a way to enhance clarity, explicitness and openness in research reviews. Its use will speed the first step of most research projects -- to see what has been done before -- and will help researchers to avoid costly research duplication.

589 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that delinquency conceals 2 distinct categories of individuals, each with a unique natural history and etiology: a small group engages in antisocial behavior of 1 sort or another at every life stage, whereas a larger group is antisocial only during adolescence.
Abstract: This chapter suggests that delinquency conceals two distinct categories of individuals, each with a unique natural history and etiology: A small group engages in antisocial behavior of one sort or another at every life stage, whereas a larger group is antisocial only during adolescence. According to the theory of life-course-persistent antisocial behavior, children's neuropsychological problems interact cumulatively with their criminogenic environments across development, culminating m a pathological personality. According to the theory of adolescence-limited antisocial behavior, a contemporary maturity gap encourages teens to mimic antisocial behavior in ways that are normative and adjustive. There are marked individual differences in the stability of antisocial behavior. The chapter reviews the mysterious relationship between age and antisocial behavior. Some youths who refrain from antisocial behavior may, for some reason, not sense the maturity gap and therefore lack the hypothesized motivation for experimenting with crime.

9,425 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a community-level theory that builds on Shaw and McKay's original model is formulated and tested, and the model is first tested by analyzing data for 238 localities in Great Britain constructed from a 1982 national survey of 10,905 residents.
Abstract: Shaw and McKay's influential theory of community social disorganization has never been directly tested. To address this, a community-level theory that builds on Shaw and McKay's original model is formulated and tested. The general hypothesis is that low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disorganization, which, in turn, increases crime and delinquency rates. A community's level of social organization is measured in terms of local friendship networks, control of street-corner teenage peer groups, and prevalence of organizational participation. The model is first tested by analyzing data for 238 localities in Great Britain constructed from a 1982 national survey of 10,905 residents. The model is then replicated on an independent national sample of 11,030 residents of 300 British localities in 1984. Results from both surveys support the theory and show that between-community variations in social disorganization transmit much of the effect of community structural characteristics on rates of both criminal victimization and criminal offending.

3,974 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article provides a comprehensive review of research on the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent well-being and suggests the importance of high socioeconomic status for achievement and low SES and residential instability for behavioral/emotional outcomes.
Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive review of research on the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent well-being. The first section reviews key methodological issues. The following section considers links between neighborhood characteristics and child outcomes and suggests the importance of high socioeconomic status (SES) for achievement and low SES and residential instability for behavioral/emotional outcomes. The third section identifies 3 pathways (institutional resources, relationships, and norms/collective efficacy) through which neighborhoods might influence development, and which represent an extension of models identified by C. Jencks and S. Mayer (1990) and R. J. Sampson (1992). The models provide a theoretical base for studying neighborhood mechanisms and specify different levels (individual, family, school, peer, community) at which processes may operate. Implications for an emerging developmental framework for research on neighborhoods are discussed. Social science concerns about the effects of residence in a poor neighborhood on children and youth date back more than 50 years to the publication of Shaw and McKay's (1942) Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Historical accounts of the effects of living in a poor neighborhood date back even further. The current interest in neighborhood effects on, children and youth has multiple origins. First, Wilson's (1987) documentation of increasingly concentrated poverty in urban areas at the neighborhood level during the 1970s and 1980s served to reorient discussions of poverty from the individual to the neighborhood level. Second, and related to the work of Wilson, was the rejuvenated interest among sociologists and urban scholars in community social disorganization theory (Shaw & McKay, 1942) as an explanatory model for delinquency and crime, as well as other problem behaviors encountered in many poor urban neighborhoods (see, e.g., Bursik, 1988; Kornhauser, 1978; Sampson, 1992; Sampson & Groves, 1989; see Sampson & Morenoff, 1997, for a review). Social disorganization theory posits that neighborhood structural factors, such as poverty, residential instability, single parenthood, and ethnic heterogeneity, are of prime importance in explaining behavior through their ability to thwart or promote neighborhood organization (formal and informal institutions), which maintains public order. Other scholars, although not necessarily focusing on child wellbeing, drew attention to residential (or spacial) patterns as sources

3,303 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on one particular aspect of authoritativeness: voluntary compliance with the decisions of authorities, and distinguish both of these types of power from legitimate power, in which obedience flows from judgments about the legitimacy of the authority.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on one particular aspect of authoritativeness: voluntary compliance with the decisions of authorities. Social psychologists have long distinguished between obedience that is the result of coercion, and obedience that is the result of internal attitudes. Opinions describe “reward power” and “coercive power”, in which obedience is contingent on positive and negative outcomes, and distinguish both of these types of power from legitimate power, in which obedience flows from judgments about the legitimacy of the authority. Legitimate power depends on people taking the obligation on themselves to obey and voluntarily follow the decisions made by authorities. The chapter also focuses on legitimacy because it is important to recognize, that legitimacy is not the only attitudinal factor influencing effectiveness. It is also influenced by other cognitions about the authority, most notably judgments of his or her expertise with respect to the problem at hand. The willingness of group members to accept a leader's directives is only helpful when the leader knows what directives to issue.

2,645 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the sources and consequences of public disorder are assessed based on the videotaping and systematic rating of more than 23,000 street segments in Chicago, and highly reliable scales of social and physical disorder for 196 neighborhoods are constructed.
Abstract: This article assesses the sources and consequences of public disorder. Based on the videotaping and systematic rating of more than 23,000 street segments in Chicago, highly reliable scales of social and physical disorder for 196 neighborhoods are constructed. Census data, police records, and an independent survey of more than 3,500 residents are then integrated to test a theory of collective efficacy and structural constraints. Defined as cohesion among residents combined with shared expectations for the social control of public space, collective efficacy explains lower rates of crime and observed disorder after controlling neighborhood structural characteristics. Collective efficacy is also linked to lower rates of violent crime after accounting for disorder and the reciprocal effects of violence. Contrary to the "broken windows" theory, however, the relationship between public disorder and crime is spurious except perhaps for robbery.

2,304 citations