Bio: Wilhelm Steinmann is an academic researcher from RWTH Aachen University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fiber & Carbon nanotube. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 20 publications receiving 201 citations.
TL;DR: This research explains the melt spinning of bicomponent fibers, consisting of a conductive polypropylene (PP) core and a piezoelectric sheath (polyvinylidene fluoride), to be exploited in sensor filaments.
Abstract: This research explains the melt spinning of bicomponent fibers, consisting of a conductive polypropylene (PP) core and a piezoelectric sheath (polyvinylidene fluoride). Previously analyzed piezoelectric capabilities of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are to be exploited in sensor filaments. The PP compound contains a 10 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 wt % sodium stearate (NaSt). The sodium stearate is added to lower the viscosity of the melt. The compound constitutes the fiber core that is conductive due to a percolation CNT network. The PVDF sheath's piezoelectric effect is based on the formation of an all-trans conformation β phase, caused by draw-winding of the fibers. The core and sheath materials, as well as the bicomponent fibers, are characterized through different analytical methods. These include wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) to analyze crucial parameters for the development of a crystalline β phase. The distribution of CNTs in the polymer matrix, which affects the conductivity of the core, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermal characterization is carried out by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Optical microscopy is used to determine the fibers' diameter regularity (core and sheath). The materials' viscosity is determined by rheometry. Eventually, an LCR tester is used to determine the core's specific resistance.
TL;DR: In this paper, three different experimental techniques were used to study structural phase transitions in melt-spun poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibers, which were produced with different process parameters and processed in the draw-winding process at different temperatures and draw ratios.
Abstract: Three different experimental techniques were used to study structural phase transitions in melt-spun poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibers, which were produced with different process parameters and processed in the draw-winding process at different temperatures and draw ratios. The fibers are examined with the help of wide-angle X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures, differential scanning calorimetry with stochastic temperature modulation, and dynamic mechanical analysis. An oriented mesophase and deformed crystal structures can be observed in all fibers and assigned to the mechanical stress occurring in the processes. Furthermore, several phase transitions during melting and two mechanical relaxation processes could be detected. The observed transitions affect the crystal geometry, the orientation distribution, anisotropic thermal expansion, and the mechanic response of the fiber samples. The relaxation processes can be related with an increasing amount of crystalline β-phase in fibers drawn at different temperatures. The detailed information about phase transitions and the related temperatures are used to produce fibers with an extended amount of β-phase crystallites, which are responsible for piezoelectric properties of the material. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011
••01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this paper, the essential properties of fibres required for fabricating good performance composites are presented, and fundamental aspects of these properties and principles of their characterization techniques are discussed.
Abstract: In this chapter, essential properties of fibres required for fabricating good performance composites are presented. Fundamental aspects of these properties and principles of their characterization techniques are discussed. Firstly, the geometrical aspects of fibres (for short and endless fibres) are described. The second part deals with the different types of structures in fibres with respect to molecular orientation mostly responsible for anisotropy of fibres. In the third part, the mechanical properties (especially tensile properties) and failure mechanisms for different types of fibres are discussed and correlated to the structure of the fibres. The following part is concerned with the surface of fibres, which is responsible for the interaction of the fibres with the matrix material in composites and has a large influence on the wetting behavior and adhesion to matrix materials. In the last parts, further physical properties (heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermomechanical properties and electrical conductivity) and the durability of fibres are described.
TL;DR: Several polymers were modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) to study the influences of the crystallization in the polymeric matrix and of the CNT orientation during extrusion on the elec...
Abstract: Several polymers were modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) to study the influences of the crystallization in the polymeric matrix and of the CNT orientation during extrusion on the elec...
23 Jan 2013
TL;DR: The most prominent materials are thermoplastic among which poly(ethylene terephtalat) (PET), polyamides (PA), and polypropylene (PP) make up the largest fraction.
Abstract: Each year about 50 Million tons polymer is processed to fibers worldwide . Polymeric fibers are manufactured into all sorts of daily as well as industrial goods [2, 3]. The most prominent materials are thermoplastic among which poly(ethylene terephtalat) (PET), polyamides (PA) and polypropylene (PP) make up the largest fraction . Other thermoplastic polymers such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) belong to niche markets with highly specialized applications [5-7].
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: In this article, the electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites containing a small amount of carbon nanotube (CNT) were successfully predicted based on three-dimensional (3D) statistical percolation and 3D resistor network modeling.
Abstract: The electrical properties of polymer nanocomposites containing a small amount of carbon nanotube (CNT) are remarkably superior to those of conventional electronic composites. Based on three-dimensional (3D) statistical percolation and 3D resistor network modeling, the electrical properties of CNT nanocomposites, at and after percolation, were successfully predicted in this work. The numerical analysis was also extended to investigate the effects of the aspect ratio, the electrical conductivity, the aggregation and the shape of CNTs on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites. A simple empirical model was also established based on present numerical simulations to predict the electrical conductivity in several electronic composites with various fillers. This investigation further highlighted the importance of theoretical and numerical analyses in the exploration of basic physical phenomena, such as percolation and conductivity in novel nanocomposites.
TL;DR: In this article, a knitted single-structure piezoelectric generator consisting of high β-phase (∼80%) polyamide multifilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver (Ag) coated polyamide multilament yarn layers acting as the top and bottom electrodes is presented.
Abstract: The piezoelectric effect in poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, was discovered over four decades ago and since then, significant work has been carried out aiming at the production of high β-phase fibres and their integration into fabric structures for energy harvesting. However, little work has been done in the area of production of “true piezoelectric fabric structures” based on flexible polymeric materials such as PVDF. In this work, we demonstrate “3D spacer” technology based all-fibre piezoelectric fabrics as power generators and energy harvesters. The knitted single-structure piezoelectric generator consists of high β-phase (∼80%) piezoelectric PVDF monofilaments as the spacer yarn interconnected between silver (Ag) coated polyamide multifilament yarn layers acting as the top and bottom electrodes. The novel and unique textile structure provides an output power density in the range of 1.10–5.10 μW cm−2 at applied impact pressures in the range of 0.02–0.10 MPa, thus providing significantly higher power outputs and efficiencies over the existing 2D woven and nonwoven piezoelectric structures. The high energy efficiency, mechanical durability and comfort of the soft, flexible and all-fibre based power generator are highly attractive for a variety of potential applications such as wearable electronic systems and energy harvesters charged from the ambient environment or by human movement.
TL;DR: DPDAK is a software for simple and fast on- and offline reduction and analysis of X-ray scattering data that is an open-source software with a plug-in structure allowing tailored extensions.
Abstract: X-ray scattering experiments at synchrotron sources are characterized by large and constantly increasing amounts of data. The great number of files generated during a synchrotron experiment is often a limiting factor in the analysis of the data, since appropriate software is rarely available to perform fast and tailored data processing. Furthermore, it is often necessary to perform online data reduction and analysis during the experiment in order to interactively optimize experimental design. This article presents an open-source software package developed to process large amounts of data from synchrotron scattering experiments. These data reduction processes involve calibration and correction of raw data, one- or two-dimensional integration, as well as fitting and further analysis of the data, including the extraction of certain parameters. The software, DPDAK (directly programmable data analysis kit), is based on a plug-in structure and allows individual extension in accordance with the requirements of the user. The article demonstrates the use of DPDAK for on- and offline analysis of scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data on biological samples and microfluidic systems, as well as for a comprehensive analysis of grazing-incidence SAXS data. In addition to a comparison with existing software packages, the structure of DPDAK and the possibilities and limitations are discussed.
TL;DR: The most significant enhancement is that the aligned electrospun core-shell P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers exhibited almost 40 times higher sensitivity than that of pressure sensor based on thin-film PVDF.
Abstract: The flexible tactile sensor has attracted widespread attention because of its great flexibility, high sensitivity, and large workable range. It can be integrated into clothing, electronic skin, or mounted on to human skin. Various nanostructured materials and nanocomposites with high flexibility and electrical performance have been widely utilized as functional materials in flexible tactile sensors. Polymer nanomaterials, representing the most promising materials, especially polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), PVDF co-polymer and their nanocomposites with ultra-sensitivity, high deformability, outstanding chemical resistance, high thermal stability and low permittivity, can meet the flexibility requirements for dynamic tactile sensing in wearable electronics. Electrospinning has been recognized as an excellent straightforward and versatile technique for preparing nanofiber materials. This review will present a brief overview of the recent advances in PVDF nanofibers by electrospinning for flexible tactile sensor applications. PVDF, PVDF co-polymers and their nanocomposites have been successfully formed as ultrafine nanofibers, even as randomly oriented PVDF nanofibers by electrospinning. These nanofibers used as the functional layers in flexible tactile sensors have been reviewed briefly in this paper. The β-phase content, which is the strongest polar moment contributing to piezoelectric properties among all the crystalline phases of PVDF, can be improved by adjusting the technical parameters in electrospun PVDF process. The piezoelectric properties and the sensibility for the pressure sensor are improved greatly when the PVDF fibers become more oriented. The tactile performance of PVDF composite nanofibers can be further promoted by doping with nanofillers and nanoclay. Electrospun P(VDF-TrFE) nanofiber mats used for the 3D pressure sensor achieved excellent sensitivity, even at 0.1 Pa. The most significant enhancement is that the aligned electrospun core-shell P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers exhibited almost 40 times higher sensitivity than that of pressure sensor based on thin-film PVDF.
TL;DR: In this paper, an overview of recent advances in research on the interfacial characteristics of carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites is presented, and the current challenges and opportunities for efficiently translating the remarkable properties of nanotubes to polymer matrices are summarized in the hopes of facilitating the development of this emerging area.
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of recent advances in research on the interfacial characteristics of carbon nanotube–polymer nanocomposites. The state of knowledge about the chemical functionalization of carbon nanotubes as well as the interaction at the interface between the carbon nanotube and the polymer matrix is presented. The primary focus of this paper is on identifying the fundamental relationship between nanocomposite properties and interfacial characteristics. The progress, remaining challenges, and future directions of research are discussed. The latest developments of both microscopy and scattering techniques are reviewed, and their respective strengths and limitations are briefly discussed. The main methods available for the chemical functionalization of carbon nanotubes are summarized, and particular interest is given to evaluation of their advantages and disadvantages. The critical issues related to the interaction at the interface are discussed, and the important techniques for improving the properties of carbon nanotube–polymer nanocomposites are introduced. Additionally, the mechanism responsible for the interfacial interaction at the molecular level is briefly described. Furthermore, the mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of the nanocomposites are discussed separately, and their influencing factors are briefly introduced. Finally, the current challenges and opportunities for efficiently translating the remarkable properties of carbon nanotubes to polymer matrices are summarized in the hopes of facilitating the development of this emerging area. Potential topics of oncoming focus are highlighted, and several suggestions concerning future research needs are also presented.