William B. Jakoby
Bio: William B. Jakoby is an academic researcher. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 696 citations.
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: There is little doubt that measurements of bioaccumulation and biomarker responses in fish from contaminated sites offer great promises for providing information that can contribute to environmental monitoring programs designed for various aspects of ERA.
Abstract: In this review, a wide array of bioaccumulation markers and biomarkers, used to demonstrate exposure to and effects of environmental contaminants, has been discussed in relation to their feasibility in environmental risk assessment (ERA). Fish bioaccumulation markers may be applied in order to elucidate the aquatic behavior of environmental contaminants, as bioconcentrators to identify certain substances with low water levels and to assess exposure of aquatic organisms. Since it is virtually impossible to predict the fate of xenobiotic substances with simple partitioning models, the complexity of bioaccumulation should be considered, including toxicokinetics, metabolism, biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs), organ-specific bioaccumulation and bound residues. Since it remains hard to accurately predict bioaccumulation in fish, even with highly sophisticated models, analyses of tissue levels are required. The most promising fish bioaccumulation markers are body burdens of persistent organic pollutants, like PCBs and DDTs. Since PCDD and PCDF levels in fish tissues are very low as compared with the sediment levels, their value as bioaccumulation markers remains questionable. Easily biodegradable compounds, such as PAHs and chlorinated phenols, do not tend to accumulate in fish tissues in quantities that reflect the exposure. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been successfully used to mimic bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic substances in aquatic organisms. In order to assess exposure to or effects of environmental pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, the following suite of fish biomarkers may be examined: biotransformation enzymes (phase I and II), oxidative stress parameters, biotransformation products, stress proteins, metallothioneins (MTs), MXR proteins, hematological parameters, immunological parameters, reproductive and endocrine parameters, genotoxic parameters, neuromuscular parameters, physiological, histological and morphological parameters. All fish biomarkers are evaluated for their potential use in ERA programs, based upon six criteria that have been proposed in the present paper. This evaluation demonstrates that phase I enzymes (e.g. hepatic EROD and CYP1A), biotransformation products (e.g. biliary PAH metabolites), reproductive parameters (e.g. plasma VTG) and genotoxic parameters (e.g. hepatic DNA adducts) are currently the most valuable fish biomarkers for ERA. The use of biomonitoring methods in the control strategies for chemical pollution has several advantages over chemical monitoring. Many of the biological measurements form the only way of integrating effects on a large number of individual and interactive processes in aquatic organisms. Moreover, biological and biochemical effects may link the bioavailability of the compounds of interest with their concentration at target organs and intrinsic toxicity. The limitations of biomonitoring, such as confounding factors that are not related to pollution, should be carefully considered when interpreting biomarker data. Based upon this overview there is little doubt that measurements of bioaccumulation and biomarker responses in fish from contaminated sites offer great promises for providing information that can contribute to environmental monitoring programs designed for various aspects of ERA.
TL;DR: Investigation has brought new developments in the involvement of the glyoxalase in cell growth and vesicle mobilization, with increasing evidence of changes in the gly oxalase system during tumor growth and diabete mellitus, particularly relating to the development of associated clinical complications.
Abstract: The glyoxalase system is present in the cytosol of cells and cellular organelles, particularly mitochondria. It is found throughout biological life and is thought to be ubiquitous. The widespread distribution and presence of the glyoxalase system in living organisms suggests it fulfils a function of fundamental importance to biological life. Recent investigations have brought new developments in the involvement of the glyoxalase in cell growth and vesicle mobilization, with increasing evidence of changes in the glyoxalase system during tumor growth and diabete mellitus, particularly relating to the development of associated clinical complications.
TL;DR: This review addresses the mechanism of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by organophosphorus and carbamate esters, focusing on structural requirements necessary for anticholinestersterase activity.
Abstract: Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides are toxic to insects and mammals by virtue of their ability to inactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. This review addresses the mechanism of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by organophosphorus and carbamate esters, focusing on structural requirements necessary for anticholinesterase activity. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by these compounds is discussed in terms of reactivity and steric effects. The role of metabolic activation or degradation in the overall intoxication process is also discussed.
TL;DR: Powerful antioxidant systems of the cell maintain low steady state concentrations of oxygen metabolites, and toxic effects may, in part, also be expleined by the constant drain of reducing equivalents resulting from redox cycling.
Abstract: Various endogenous and exogenous compounds exert cytotoxic effects via oxygen reduction. In general, these are reduced by intracellular enzymes (reductases of various kinds) in one-electron transfer reactions, before they in turn reduce O2 to O2, the superoxide anion radical. Thus, a cycle is formed of O2 uptake at the expense of cellular reducing equivalents, notably NADPH, generating further active oxygen species (figs 1,2). Structures capable of 'redox cycling' include catechols and other quinone compounds, iron chelates, and aromatic nitro compounds. Several anticancer agents, and also some mutagens, operate on this principle, and their toxic effects may be explained by redox cycling. The particular importance of hypoxic conditions for deleterious O2 effects is given by the concomitant flux through reductive as well as oxidative pathways. Toxic effects include membrane damage resulting from peroxidative reactions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (lipid peroxidation), as well as the attack of reactive oxygen species on proteins (enzymes) and nucleic acids; thus O2 metabolism is linked to carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Lipid peroxidation is also induced by various halogenated compounds such as carbon tetrachloride. Again, hypoxic conditions are particularly critical because, on the one hand, metabolic activation leading to the free radical is enhanced and, on the other hand, oxygen required for the maintenance of lipid peroxidation is still available. - Powerful antioxidant systems of the cell maintain low steady state concentrations of oxygen metabolites, and toxic effects may, in part, also be explained by the constant drain of reducing equivalents resulting from redox cycling.
TL;DR: The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.
Abstract: Saxitoxin (STX) and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes) and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes), which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.