William E. Reifsnyder
Bio: William E. Reifsnyder is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Convection & Thermal conduction. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 4083 citation(s).
01 Mar 1974-Physics Today
TL;DR: In this paper, the second edition of the Second edition, the authors present a list of symbolic symbols for the field of environmental physical sciences, including the following: 1.GAS LAWS Pressure, volume and temperature Specific heats Lapse rate Water and water vapour Other gases 3. TRANSPORT LAWS General transfer equation Molecular transfer processes Diffusion coefficients Radiation laws 4. RADI ENVIRONMENT Solar radiation Terrestrial radiation Net radiation 5. MICROCLIMATOLOGY OF RADIATION (i) Interception Direct solar radiation Diffuse radiation Radiation in
Abstract: PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION LIST OF SYMBOLS 1. SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS 2. GAS LAWS Pressure, volume and temperature Specific heats Lapse rate Water and water vapour Other gases 3. TRANSPORT LAWS General transfer equation Molecular transfer processes Diffusion coefficients Radiation laws 4. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT Solar radiation Terrestrial radiation Net radiation 5. MICROCLIMATOLOGY OF RADIATION (i) Interception Direct solar radiation Diffuse radiation Radiation in crop canopies 6. MICROCLIMATOLOGY OF RADIATION (ii) Absorption and reflection Radiative properties of natural materials Net radiation 7. MOMENTUM TRANSFER Boundary layers Wind profiles and drag on uniform surfaces Lodging and windthrow 8. HEAT TRANSFER Convection Non-dimensional groups Measurements of convection Conduction Insulation of animals 9. MASS TRANSFER (i) Gases and water vapour Non-dimensional groups Measurement of mass transfer Ventilation Mass transfer through pores Coats and clothing 10.MASS TRANSFER (ii) Particles Steady motion 11.STEADY STATE HEAT BALANCE (i) Water surfaces and vegetation Heat balance equation Heat balance of thermometers Heat balance of surfaces Developments from the Penman Equation 12.STEADY STATE HEAT BALANCE (ii) Animals Heat balance components The thermo-neutral diagram Specification of the environment Case studies 13.TRANSIENT HEAT BALANCE Time constant General cases Heat flow in soil 14.CROP MICROMETEOROLOGY (i) Profiles and fluxes Profiles Profile equations and stability Measurement of flux above the canopy 15.CROP MICROMETEOROLOGY (ii) Interpretation of measurements Resistance analogues Case studies: Water vapour and transpiration Carbon dioxide and growth Sulphur dioxide and pollutant fluxes to crops Transport within canopies APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES INDEX
01 Jun 2008-New Phytologist
TL;DR: A hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality was developed, and incorporating this hydraulic framework may be effective for modeling plant survival andortality under future climate conditions.
Abstract: Summary Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, pre- diction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-stream approximation model of radiative transfer was used to calculate values of hemispheric canopy reflectance in the visible and near-infrared wavelength intervals.
Abstract: A two-stream approximation model of radiative transfer is used to calculate values of hemispheric canopy reflectance in the visible and near-infrared wavelength intervals. Simple leaf models of photosynthesis and stomatal resistance are integrated over leaf orientation and canopy depth to obtain estimates of canopy photosynthesis and bulk stomatal or canopy resistance. The ratio of near-infrared and visible reflectances is predicted to be a near linear indicator of minimum canopy resistance and photosynthetic capacity but a poor predictor of leaf area index or biomass.
01 Jan 1989-Atmospheric Environment
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method for estimating the dry deposition velocities of atmospheric gases in the U.S. and surrounding areas and incorporated it into a revised computer code module for use in numerical models of atmospheric transport and deposition of pollutants over regional scales.
Abstract: Methods for estimating the dry deposition velocities of atmospheric gases in the U.S. and surrounding areas have been improved and incorporated into a revised computer code module for use in numerical models of atmospheric transport and deposition of pollutants over regional scales. The key improvement is the computation of bulk surface resistances along three distinct pathways of mass transfer to sites of deposition at the upper portions of vegetative canopies or structures, the lower portions, and the ground (or water surface). This approach replaces the previous technique of providing simple look-up tables of bulk surface resistances. With the surface resistances divided explicitly into distinct pathways, the bulk surface resistances for a large number of gases in addition to those usually addressed in acid deposition models (SO2,O3, NOx and HNO3) can be computed, if estimates of the effective Henry's Law constants and appropriate measures of the chemical reactivity of the various substances are known. This has been accomplished successfully for H2O2, HCHO, CH3CHO (to represent other aldehydes), CH3O2H (to represent organic peroxides), CH3C(O)O2H, HCOOH (to represent organic acids), NH3, CH3C(O)O2NO2 and HNO2. Other factors considered include surface temperature, stomatal response to environmental parameters, the wetting of surfaces by dew and rain, and the covering of surfaces by snow. Surface emission of gases and variations of uptake characteristics by individual plant species within the landuse types are not considered explicitly.
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple radiative transfer model with vegetation, soil, and atmospheric components is used to illustrate how the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), and fractional vegetation cover are dependent.
Abstract: We use a simple radiative transfer model with vegetation, soil, and atmospheric components to illustrate how the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), and fractional vegetation cover are dependent. In particular, we suggest that LAI and fractional vegetation cover may not be independent quantitites, at least when the former is defined without regard to the presence of bare patches between plants, and that the customary variation of LAI with NDVI can be explained as resulting from a variation in fractional vegetation cover. The following points are made: i) Fractional vegetation cover and LAI are not entirely independent quantities, depending on how LAI is defined. Care must be taken in using LAI and fractional vegetation cover independently in a model because the former may partially take account of the latter; ii) A scaled NDVI taken between the limits of minimum (bare soil) and miximum fractional vegetation cover is insenstive to atmospheric correction for both clear and hazy conditions, at least for viewing angles less than about 20 degrees from nadir; iii) A simple relation between scaled NDVI and fractional vegetation cover, previously described in the literature, is further confirmed by the .simulations; iv) The sensitive dependence of LAI on NDVI when the former is below a value of about 2–4 may be viewed as being due to the variation in the bare soil component.
01 Apr 2001-Global Change Biology
TL;DR: In this paper, the possible responses of ecosystem processes to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change are illustrated using six dynamic global vegetation models that explicitly represent the interactions of ecosystem carbon and water exchanges with vegetation dynamics.
Abstract: The possible responses of ecosystem processes to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change are illustrated using six dynamic global vegetation models that explicitly represent the interactions of ecosystem carbon and water exchanges with vegetation dynamics. The models are driven by the IPCC IS92a scenario of rising CO2 (Wigley et al. 1991), and by climate changes resulting from effective CO2 concentrations corresponding to IS92a, simulated by the coupled ocean atmosphere model HadCM2-SUL. Simulations with changing CO2 alone show a widely distributed terrestrial carbon sink of 1.4‐3.8 Pg C y ‐1 during the 1990s, rising to 3.7‐8.6 Pg C y ‐1 a century later. Simulations including climate change show a reduced sink both today (0.6‐ 3.0 Pg C y ‐1 ) and a century later (0.3‐6.6 Pg C y ‐1 ) as a result of the impacts of climate change on NEP of tropical and southern hemisphere ecosystems. In all models, the rate of increase of NEP begins to level off around 2030 as a consequence of the ‘diminishing return’ of physiological CO2 effects at high CO2 concentrations. Four out of the six models show a further, climate-induced decline in NEP resulting from increased heterotrophic respiration and declining tropical NPP after 2050. Changes in vegetation structure influence the magnitude and spatial pattern of the carbon sink and, in combination with changing climate, also freshwater availability (runoff). It is shown that these changes, once set in motion, would continue to evolve for at least a century even if atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate could be instantaneously stabilized. The results should be considered illustrative in the sense that the choice of CO2 concentration scenario was arbitrary and only one climate model scenario was used. However, the results serve to indicate a range of possible biospheric responses to CO2 and climate change. They reveal major uncertainties about the response of NEP to climate