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William Henry Foddy

Bio: William Henry Foddy is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Respondent. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 1011 citations.
Topics: Respondent

Papers
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Book
29 Jan 1993
TL;DR: The open vs closed question debate: coding reponses to open questions and formulating sets of response options for closed questions as discussed by the authors has been studied in the context of question answering.
Abstract: Preface 1. An initial statement of the problem 2. A theoretical framework 3. Defining topics properly 4. Formulating intelligible requests for information 5. Contextual influences on respondent's interpretations of questions 6. The need to provide response frameworks 7. The limitations of human memory 8. Filters: establishing the relevance of questions to the respondents 9. Reducing question threat 10. The open vs closed question debate: coding reponses to open questions and formulating sets of response options for closed questions 11. Measuring attitudes 12. Checks to ensure that questions work as they are intended to work Conclusions References.

1,029 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Construct definition, Object classification, Attribute classification, Rater identification, Scale formation, and Enumeration and reporting (C-OAR-SE) is proposed as a new procedure for the development of scales to measure marketing constructs.

2,204 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 2003-Cancer
TL;DR: The International Agency for Research on Cancer conducts a programme of research concentrating particularly on the epidemiology of cancer and the study of potential carcinogens in the human environment.
Abstract: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was established in 1965 by the World Health Assembly, as an independently funded organisation within the framework of the World Health Organization. The headquarters of the Agency are in Lyon, France. The Agency conducts a programme of research concentrating particularly on the epidemiology of cancer and the study of potential carcinogens in the human environment. Its field studies are supplemented by biological and chemical research carried out in the Agency's laboratories in Lyon and, through collaborative research agreements, in national research institutions in many countries. The Agency also conducts a programme for the education and training of personnel for cancer research. The publications of the Agency contribute to the dissemination of authoritative information on different aspects of cancer research. Information about IARC publications, and how to order them, is available via the Internet at: http:// The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication.

718 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preliminary results indicate the AQoL has the prerequisite qualities for a psychometric HRQoL instrument for evaluation; replication with a larger sample is needed to verify these findings.
Abstract: This paper describes constructing the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instrument; designed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to be the descriptive system for a multi-attribute utility instrument. Unlike previous utility instruments' descriptive systems, the AQoL's has been developed using state-of-the-art psychometric procedures. The result is a descriptive system which emphasizes five different facets of HRQoL and which can claim to have construct validity. Based on the WHO's definition of health a model of HRQoL was developed. Items were written by focus groups of doctors and the researchers. These were administered to a construction sample, comprising hospital patients, and community members chosen at random. Final construction was through an iterative process of factor and reliability analyses. The AQoL measures 5 dimensions: illness, independent living, social relationships, physical senses and psychological wellbeing. Each has three items. Exploratory factor analysis showed the dimensions were orthogonal, and each was unidimensional. Internal consistency was α = 0.81. Structural equation modeling explored its internal structure; the comparative fit index was 0.90. These preliminary results indicate the AQoL has the prerequisite qualities for a psychometric HRQoL instrument for evaluation; replication with a larger sample is needed to verify these findings. Scaling it for economic evaluation using utilities is being undertaken. Respondents have indicated the AQoL is easy to understand and is quickly completed. Its initial properties suggest it may be widely applicable.

715 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How students use AV technology has a greater impact on effectiveness than what AV technology shows them, and an agenda for future research into AV effectiveness is formulated.
Abstract: Algorithm visualization (AV) technology graphically illustrates how algorithms work. Despite the intuitive appeal of the technology, it has failed to catch on in mainstream computer science education. Some have attributed this failure to the mixed results of experimental studies designed to substantiate AV technology's educational effectiveness. However, while several integrative reviews of AV technology have appeared, none has focused specifically on the software's effectiveness by analyzing this body of experimental studies as a whole. In order to better understand the effectiveness of AV technology, we present a systematic meta-study of 24 experimental studies. We pursue two separate analyses: an analysis ofindependent variables , in which we tie each study to a particular guiding learning theory in an attempt to determine which guiding theory has had the most predictive success; and an analysis of dependent variables, which enables us to determine which measurement techniques have been most sensitive to the learning benefits of AV technology. Our most significant finding is that how students use AV technology has a greater impact on effectiveness than what AV technology shows them. Based on our findings, we formulate an agenda for future research into AV effectiveness.

646 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The DEMQOL system has been validated in the UK in a large sample of people with dementia and their carers, and it provides separate measures for self-report and proxy report, which allows outcomes assessment across a wide range of severity in dementia.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a psychometrically rigorous measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for people with dementia: DEMQOL. DATA SOURCES: Literature review. Expert opinion. Interviews and questionnaires. REVIEW METHODS: Gold standard psychometric techniques were used to develop DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy. A conceptual framework was generated from a review of the literature, qualitative interviews with people with dementia and their carers, expert opinion and team discussion. Items for each component of the conceptual framework were drafted and piloted to produce questionnaires for the person with dementia (DEMQOL) and carer (DEMQOL-Proxy). An extensive two-stage field-testing was then undertaken of both measures in large samples of people with dementia (n = 130) and their carers (n = 126) representing a range of severity and care arrangements. In the first field test, items with poor psychometric performance were eliminated separately for DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy to produce two shorter, more scientifically robust instruments. In the second field test, the item-reduced questionnaires were evaluated along with other validating measures (n = 101 people with dementia, n = 99 carers) to assess acceptability, reliability and validity. RESULTS: Rigorous evaluation in two-stage field testing with 241 people with dementia and 225 carers demonstrated that in psychometric terms: (1) DEMQOL is comparable to the best available dementia-specific HRQoL measures in mild to moderate dementia, but is not appropriate for use in severe dementia [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) /= 10) and are suitable for use in the UK. DEMQOL-Proxy also shows promise in severe dementia. As DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy give different but complementary perspectives on quality of life in dementia, the use of both measures together is recommended. In severe dementia, only DEMQOL-Proxy should be used. Further research with DEMQOL is needed to confirm these findings in an independent sample, evaluate responsiveness, investigate the feasibility of use in specific subgroups and in economic evaluation, and develop population norms. Additional research is needed to address the psychometric challenges of self-report in dementia and validating new dementia-specific HRQoL measures.

601 citations