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William I. Milne

Bio: William I. Milne is an academic researcher from University of Cambridge. The author has contributed to research in topics: Carbon nanotube & Field electron emission. The author has an hindex of 80, co-authored 663 publications receiving 27167 citations. Previous affiliations of William I. Milne include Kyung Hee University & Shizuoka University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the creation of a stable, superhydrophobic surface using the nanoscale roughness inherent in a vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest together with a thin conformal hydrophobic poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) coating on the surface of the nanotubes was demonstrated.
Abstract: The present study demonstrates the creation of a stable, superhydrophobic surface using the nanoscale roughness inherent in a vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest together with a thin, conformal hydrophobic poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) coating on the surface of the nanotubes. Superhydrophobicity is achieved down to the microscopic level where essentially spherical, micrometer-sized water droplets can be suspended on top of the nanotube forest.

1,568 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using a direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system was reported, and the growth properties were studied as a function of the Ni catalyst layer thickness, bias voltage, deposition temperature, C2H2:NH3 ratio, and pressure.
Abstract: The growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using a direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system is reported. The growth properties are studied as a function of the Ni catalyst layer thickness, bias voltage, deposition temperature, C2H2:NH3 ratio, and pressure. It was found that the diameter, growth rate, and areal density of the nanotubes are controlled by the initial thickness of the catalyst layer. The alignment of the nanotubes depends on the electric field. Our results indicate that the growth occurs by diffusion of carbon through the Ni catalyst particle, which rides on the top of the growing tube.

1,060 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
13 May 2012
TL;DR: The current status of flexible electronics is reviewed and the future promise of these pervading technologies in healthcare, environmental monitoring, displays and human-machine interactivity, energy conversion, management and storage, and communication and wireless networks is predicted.
Abstract: Thin-film electronics in its myriad forms has underpinned much of the technological innovation in the fields of displays, sensors, and energy conversion over the past four decades. This technology also forms the basis of flexible electronics. Here we review the current status of flexible electronics and attempt to predict the future promise of these pervading technologies in healthcare, environmental monitoring, displays and human-machine interactivity, energy conversion, management and storage, and communication and wireless networks.

881 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data are found to support deposition models in which the highly tetrahedrally bonded form on nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon arises from the subplantation of incident ions, giving rise to a quenched increase in density and strain.
Abstract: A highly tetrahedrally bonded form on nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) is produced by deposition from filtered medium-energy ion beams. A range of such films was grown and the ${\mathit{sp}}^{3}$-bonded fractions, plasmon energies, compressive stresses, and resistivities were measured as a function of ion energy. These properties are found to be strongly correlated and each to pass through a maximum at an ion energy of about 140 eV. The optimum ion energy is observed to depend on the type of carbon ions deposited and, possibly, on the deposition flux rate. The data are found to support deposition models in which the ${\mathit{sp}}^{3}$ bonding arises from the subplantation of incident ions, giving rise to a quenched increase in density and strain.

793 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In principle, different diameters and chiralities of nanotubes could be combined to enable compact, mode-locked fibre lasers that are tuneable over a much broader range of wavelengths than other systems.
Abstract: Ultrashort-pulse lasers with spectral tuning capability have widespread applications in fields such as spectroscopy, biomedical research and telecommunications1–3. Mode-locked fibre lasers are convenient and powerful sources of ultrashort pulses4, and the inclusion of a broadband saturable absorber as a passive optical switch inside the laser cavity may offer tuneability over a range of wavelengths5. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors are widely used in fibre lasers4–6, but their operating range is typically limited to a few tens of nanometres7,8, and their fabrication can be challenging in the 1.3–1.5 mm wavelength region used for optical communications9,10. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are excellent saturable absorbers because of their subpicosecond recovery time, low saturation intensity, polarization insensitivity, and mechanical and environmental robustness11–16. Here, we engineer a nanotube–polycarbonate film with a wide bandwidth (>300 nm) around 1.55 mm, and then use it to demonstrate a 2.4 ps Er31-doped fibre laser that is tuneable from 1,518 to 1,558 nm. In principle, different diameters and chiralities of nanotubes could be combined to enable compact, mode-locked fibre lasers that are tuneable over a much broader range of wavelengths than other systems.

616 citations


Cited by
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28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The extremely high value of the thermal conductivity suggests that graphene can outperform carbon nanotubes in heat conduction and establishes graphene as an excellent material for thermal management.
Abstract: We report the measurement of the thermal conductivity of a suspended single-layer graphene. The room temperature values of the thermal conductivity in the range ∼(4.84 ± 0.44) × 103 to (5.30 ± 0.48) × 103 W/mK were extracted for a single-layer graphene from the dependence of the Raman G peak frequency on the excitation laser power and independently measured G peak temperature coefficient. The extremely high value of the thermal conductivity suggests that graphene can outperform carbon nanotubes in heat conduction. The superb thermal conduction property of graphene is beneficial for the proposed electronic applications and establishes graphene as an excellent material for thermal management.

11,878 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) offer the possibilities to design solar cells with a large flexibility in shape, color, and transparency as mentioned in this paper, and many DSC research groups have been established around the world.
Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) offer the possibilities to design solar cells with a large flexibility in shape, color, and transparency. DSC research groups have been established around the worl ...

8,707 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Graphene has high mobility and optical transparency, in addition to flexibility, robustness and environmental stability as discussed by the authors, and its true potential lies in photonics and optoelectronics, where the combination of its unique optical and electronic properties can be fully exploited, even in the absence of a bandgap, and the linear dispersion of the Dirac electrons enables ultrawideband tunability.
Abstract: The richness of optical and electronic properties of graphene attracts enormous interest. Graphene has high mobility and optical transparency, in addition to flexibility, robustness and environmental stability. So far, the main focus has been on fundamental physics and electronic devices. However, we believe its true potential lies in photonics and optoelectronics, where the combination of its unique optical and electronic properties can be fully exploited, even in the absence of a bandgap, and the linear dispersion of the Dirac electrons enables ultrawideband tunability. The rise of graphene in photonics and optoelectronics is shown by several recent results, ranging from solar cells and light-emitting devices to touch screens, photodetectors and ultrafast lasers. Here we review the state-of-the-art in this emerging field.

6,863 citations