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William W. Winder

Bio: William W. Winder is an academic researcher from Brigham Young University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Skeletal muscle & Protein kinase A. The author has an hindex of 42, co-authored 88 publications receiving 9149 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence is provided that decreases in muscle content of malonyl-CoA can increase the rate of fatty acid oxidation, and perfusion with medium containing AICAR was found to activate AMPK in skeletal muscle, inactivate ACC, and decrease malony l-coA.
Abstract: 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) has previously been reported to be taken up into cells and phosphorylated to form ZMP, an analog of 5′-AMP This study was designed to determin

1,012 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Increased recruitment of the AMPK signaling system, either by exercise or pharmaceutical activators, may be effective in correcting insulin resistance in patients with forms of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes resulting from defects in the insulin signaling cascade.
Abstract: Adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) now appears to be a metabolic master switch, phosphorylating key target proteins that control flux through metabolic pathways of hepatic k...

990 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase with consequent phosphorylation and inactivation of ACC may be one of the primary events in the control of malonyl-CoA and hence fatty acid oxidation during exercise.
Abstract: Malonyl-CoA, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle mitochondria, decreases in rat skeletal muscle during exercise or in response to electrical stimulation. Regulation of rat skeletal muscle acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the enzyme that synthesizes malonyl-CoA, was studied in vitro and in vivo. Avidin-Sepharose affinity-purified ACC from hindlimb skeletal muscle was phosphorylated by purified liver AMP-activated protein kinase with a concurrent decrease in ACC activity. AMP-activated protein kinase was quantitated in resuspended ammonium sulfate precipitates of the fast-twitch red (type IIa fibers) region of the quadriceps muscle. Rats running on a treadmill at 21 m/min up a 15% grade show a 2.4-fold activation of AMP-activated protein kinase concurrently with a marked decrease in ACC activity in the resuspended ammonium sulfate precipitates at all citrate concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 mM. Malonyl-CoA decreased from a resting value of 1.85 +/- 0.29 to 0.50 +/- 0.09 nmol/g in red quadriceps muscle after 30 min of treadmill running. The activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase with consequent phosphorylation and inactivation of ACC may be one of the primary events in the control of malonyl-CoA and hence fatty acid oxidation during exercise.

786 citations

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TL;DR: The results suggest that chronic AMPK activation may mediate the effects of muscle contraction on some, but not all, biochemical adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise training.
Abstract: Muscle contraction causes an increase in activity of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This study was designed to determine whether chronic chemical activation of AMPK will increase mitochond...

718 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Chronic chemical activation of AMPK results in increases in GLUT-4 protein, hexokinase activity, and glycogen, similarly to those induced by endurance training.
Abstract: This study was designed to determine whether chronic chemical activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) would increase glucose transporter GLUT-4 and hexokinase in muscles similarly to peri...

514 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is reported that metformin activates AMPK in hepatocytes; as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed.
Abstract: Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major cellular regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism. Here we report that metformin activates AMPK in hepatocytes; as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed. Activation of AMPK by metformin or an adenosine analogue suppresses expression of SREBP-1, a key lipogenic transcription factor. In metformin-treated rats, hepatic expression of SREBP-1 (and other lipogenic) mRNAs and protein is reduced; activity of the AMPK target, ACC, is also reduced. Using a novel AMPK inhibitor, we find that AMPK activation is required for metformin's inhibitory effect on glucose production by hepatocytes. In isolated rat skeletal muscles, metformin stimulates glucose uptake coincident with AMPK activation. Activation of AMPK provides a unified explanation for the pleiotropic beneficial effects of this drug; these results also suggest that alternative means of modulating AMPK should be useful for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

5,146 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that phosphorylation and activation of the 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length Ad in skeletal muscle and only with full- lengths Ad in the liver, indicating that stimulation of glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by Ad occurs through activation of AMPK.
Abstract: Adiponectin (Ad) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that regulates energy homeostasis and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the signaling pathways that mediate the metabolic effects of Ad remain poorly identified. Here we show that phosphorylation and activation of the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are stimulated with globular and full-length Ad in skeletal muscle and only with full-length Ad in the liver. In parallel with its activation of AMPK, Ad stimulates phosphorylation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), fatty-acid oxidation, glucose uptake and lactate production in myocytes, phosphorylation of ACC and reduction of molecules involved in gluconeogenesis in the liver, and reduction of glucose levels in vivo. Blocking AMPK activation by dominant-negative mutant inhibits each of these effects, indicating that stimulation of glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by Ad occurs through activation of AMPK. Our data may provide a novel paradigm that an adipocyte-derived antidiabetic hormone, Ad, activates AMPK, thereby directly regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo.

4,298 citations

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TL;DR: AMP-activated protein kinase conserves ATP levels through the regulation of processes other than metabolism, such as the cell cycle and neuronal membrane excitability.
Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial cellular energy sensor. Once activated by falling energy status, it promotes ATP production by increasing the activity or expression of proteins involved in catabolism while conserving ATP by switching off biosynthetic pathways. AMPK also regulates metabolic energy balance at the whole-body level. For example, it mediates the effects of agents acting on the hypothalamus that promote feeding and entrains circadian rhythms of metabolism and feeding behaviour. Finally, recent studies reveal that AMPK conserves ATP levels through the regulation of processes other than metabolism, such as the cell cycle and neuronal membrane excitability.

3,465 citations

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TL;DR: Through signaling, metabolic, and gene expression effects, AMPK enhances insulin sensitivity and fosters a metabolic milieu that may reduce the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

2,755 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mammalian skeletal muscle comprises different fiber types, whose identity is first established during embryonic development by intrinsic myogenic control mechanisms and is later modulated by neural and hormonal factors.
Abstract: Mammalian skeletal muscle comprises different fiber types, whose identity is first established during embryonic development by intrinsic myogenic control mechanisms and is later modulated by neural and hormonal factors. The relative proportion of the different fiber types varies strikingly between species, and in humans shows significant variability between individuals. Myosin heavy chain isoforms, whose complete inventory and expression pattern are now available, provide a useful marker for fiber types, both for the four major forms present in trunk and limb muscles and the minor forms present in head and neck muscles. However, muscle fiber diversity involves all functional muscle cell compartments, including membrane excitation, excitation-contraction coupling, contractile machinery, cytoskeleton scaffold, and energy supply systems. Variations within each compartment are limited by the need of matching fiber type properties between different compartments. Nerve activity is a major control mechanism of the fiber type profile, and multiple signaling pathways are implicated in activity-dependent changes of muscle fibers. The characterization of these pathways is raising increasing interest in clinical medicine, given the potentially beneficial effects of muscle fiber type switching in the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

2,107 citations