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Author

Xiang Bai

Other affiliations: Facebook, Wuhan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University  ...read more
Bio: Xiang Bai is an academic researcher from Huazhong University of Science and Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Object detection & Convolutional neural network. The author has an hindex of 76, co-authored 341 publications receiving 23320 citations. Previous affiliations of Xiang Bai include Facebook & Wuhan University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Zhang et al. as mentioned in this paper proposed a novel neural network architecture, which integrates feature extraction, sequence modeling and transcription into a unified framework, and achieved remarkable performances in both lexicon free and lexicon-based scene text recognition tasks.
Abstract: Image-based sequence recognition has been a long-standing research topic in computer vision. In this paper, we investigate the problem of scene text recognition, which is among the most important and challenging tasks in image-based sequence recognition. A novel neural network architecture, which integrates feature extraction, sequence modeling and transcription into a unified framework, is proposed. Compared with previous systems for scene text recognition, the proposed architecture possesses four distinctive properties: (1) It is end-to-end trainable, in contrast to most of the existing algorithms whose components are separately trained and tuned. (2) It naturally handles sequences in arbitrary lengths, involving no character segmentation or horizontal scale normalization. (3) It is not confined to any predefined lexicon and achieves remarkable performances in both lexicon-free and lexicon-based scene text recognition tasks. (4) It generates an effective yet much smaller model, which is more practical for real-world application scenarios. The experiments on standard benchmarks, including the IIIT-5K, Street View Text and ICDAR datasets, demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over the prior arts. Moreover, the proposed algorithm performs well in the task of image-based music score recognition, which evidently verifies the generality of it.

2,184 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2018
TL;DR: The Dataset for Object Detection in Aerial Images (DOTA) as discussed by the authors is a large-scale dataset of aerial images collected from different sensors and platforms and contains objects exhibiting a wide variety of scales, orientations, and shapes.
Abstract: Object detection is an important and challenging problem in computer vision. Although the past decade has witnessed major advances in object detection in natural scenes, such successes have been slow to aerial imagery, not only because of the huge variation in the scale, orientation and shape of the object instances on the earth's surface, but also due to the scarcity of well-annotated datasets of objects in aerial scenes. To advance object detection research in Earth Vision, also known as Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, we introduce a large-scale Dataset for Object deTection in Aerial images (DOTA). To this end, we collect 2806 aerial images from different sensors and platforms. Each image is of the size about 4000 A— 4000 pixels and contains objects exhibiting a wide variety of scales, orientations, and shapes. These DOTA images are then annotated by experts in aerial image interpretation using 15 common object categories. The fully annotated DOTA images contains 188, 282 instances, each of which is labeled by an arbitrary (8 d.o.f.) quadrilateral. To build a baseline for object detection in Earth Vision, we evaluate state-of-the-art object detection algorithms on DOTA. Experiments demonstrate that DOTA well represents real Earth Vision applications and are quite challenging.

1,502 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Aerial Image Data Set (AID) as mentioned in this paper is a large-scale data set for aerial scene classification, which contains more than 10,000 aerial images from remote sensing images.
Abstract: Aerial scene classification, which aims to automatically label an aerial image with a specific semantic category, is a fundamental problem for understanding high-resolution remote sensing imagery. In recent years, it has become an active task in the remote sensing area, and numerous algorithms have been proposed for this task, including many machine learning and data-driven approaches. However, the existing data sets for aerial scene classification, such as UC-Merced data set and WHU-RS19, contain relatively small sizes, and the results on them are already saturated. This largely limits the development of scene classification algorithms. This paper describes the Aerial Image data set (AID): a large-scale data set for aerial scene classification. The goal of AID is to advance the state of the arts in scene classification of remote sensing images. For creating AID, we collect and annotate more than 10000 aerial scene images. In addition, a comprehensive review of the existing aerial scene classification techniques as well as recent widely used deep learning methods is given. Finally, we provide a performance analysis of typical aerial scene classification and deep learning approaches on AID, which can be served as the baseline results on this benchmark.

1,081 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Aerial Image data set (AID), a large-scale data set for aerial scene classification, is described to advance the state of the arts in scene classification of remote sensing images and can be served as the baseline results on this benchmark.
Abstract: Aerial scene classification, which aims to automatically label an aerial image with a specific semantic category, is a fundamental problem for understanding high-resolution remote sensing imagery. In recent years, it has become an active task in remote sensing area and numerous algorithms have been proposed for this task, including many machine learning and data-driven approaches. However, the existing datasets for aerial scene classification like UC-Merced dataset and WHU-RS19 are with relatively small sizes, and the results on them are already saturated. This largely limits the development of scene classification algorithms. This paper describes the Aerial Image Dataset (AID): a large-scale dataset for aerial scene classification. The goal of AID is to advance the state-of-the-arts in scene classification of remote sensing images. For creating AID, we collect and annotate more than ten thousands aerial scene images. In addition, a comprehensive review of the existing aerial scene classification techniques as well as recent widely-used deep learning methods is given. Finally, we provide a performance analysis of typical aerial scene classification and deep learning approaches on AID, which can be served as the baseline results on this benchmark.

872 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jul 2017
TL;DR: RCF as mentioned in this paper encapsulates all convolutional features into more discriminative representation, which makes good usage of rich feature hierarchies, and is amenable to training via backpropagation.
Abstract: Edge detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. Recently, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have pushed forward this field significantly. Existing methods which adopt specific layers of deep CNNs may fail to capture complex data structures caused by variations of scales and aspect ratios. In this paper, we propose an accurate edge detector using richer convolutional features (RCF). RCF encapsulates all convolutional features into more discriminative representation, which makes good usage of rich feature hierarchies, and is amenable to training via backpropagation. RCF fully exploits multiscale and multilevel information of objects to perform the image-to-image prediction holistically. Using VGG16 network, we achieve state-of-the-art performance on several available datasets. When evaluating on the well-known BSDS500 benchmark, we achieve ODS F-measure of 0.811 while retaining a fast speed (8 FPS). Besides, our fast version of RCF achieves ODS F-measure of 0.806 with 30 FPS. We also demonstrate the versatility of the proposed method by applying RCF edges for classical image segmentation.

758 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work addresses the task of semantic image segmentation with Deep Learning and proposes atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP), which is proposed to robustly segment objects at multiple scales, and improves the localization of object boundaries by combining methods from DCNNs and probabilistic graphical models.
Abstract: In this work we address the task of semantic image segmentation with Deep Learning and make three main contributions that are experimentally shown to have substantial practical merit. First , we highlight convolution with upsampled filters, or ‘atrous convolution’, as a powerful tool in dense prediction tasks. Atrous convolution allows us to explicitly control the resolution at which feature responses are computed within Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. It also allows us to effectively enlarge the field of view of filters to incorporate larger context without increasing the number of parameters or the amount of computation. Second , we propose atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP) to robustly segment objects at multiple scales. ASPP probes an incoming convolutional feature layer with filters at multiple sampling rates and effective fields-of-views, thus capturing objects as well as image context at multiple scales. Third , we improve the localization of object boundaries by combining methods from DCNNs and probabilistic graphical models. The commonly deployed combination of max-pooling and downsampling in DCNNs achieves invariance but has a toll on localization accuracy. We overcome this by combining the responses at the final DCNN layer with a fully connected Conditional Random Field (CRF), which is shown both qualitatively and quantitatively to improve localization performance. Our proposed “DeepLab” system sets the new state-of-art at the PASCAL VOC-2012 semantic image segmentation task, reaching 79.7 percent mIOU in the test set, and advances the results on three other datasets: PASCAL-Context, PASCAL-Person-Part, and Cityscapes. All of our code is made publicly available online.

11,856 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Jul 2021-Nature
TL;DR: For example, AlphaFold as mentioned in this paper predicts protein structures with an accuracy competitive with experimental structures in the majority of cases using a novel deep learning architecture. But the accuracy is limited by the fact that no homologous structure is available.
Abstract: Proteins are essential to life, and understanding their structure can facilitate a mechanistic understanding of their function. Through an enormous experimental effort1–4, the structures of around 100,000 unique proteins have been determined5, but this represents a small fraction of the billions of known protein sequences6,7. Structural coverage is bottlenecked by the months to years of painstaking effort required to determine a single protein structure. Accurate computational approaches are needed to address this gap and to enable large-scale structural bioinformatics. Predicting the three-dimensional structure that a protein will adopt based solely on its amino acid sequence—the structure prediction component of the ‘protein folding problem’8—has been an important open research problem for more than 50 years9. Despite recent progress10–14, existing methods fall far short of atomic accuracy, especially when no homologous structure is available. Here we provide the first computational method that can regularly predict protein structures with atomic accuracy even in cases in which no similar structure is known. We validated an entirely redesigned version of our neural network-based model, AlphaFold, in the challenging 14th Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP14)15, demonstrating accuracy competitive with experimental structures in a majority of cases and greatly outperforming other methods. Underpinning the latest version of AlphaFold is a novel machine learning approach that incorporates physical and biological knowledge about protein structure, leveraging multi-sequence alignments, into the design of the deep learning algorithm. AlphaFold predicts protein structures with an accuracy competitive with experimental structures in the majority of cases using a novel deep learning architecture.

10,601 citations

Christopher M. Bishop1
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: DeepLab as discussed by the authors proposes atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP) to segment objects at multiple scales by probing an incoming convolutional feature layer with filters at multiple sampling rates and effective fields-of-views.
Abstract: In this work we address the task of semantic image segmentation with Deep Learning and make three main contributions that are experimentally shown to have substantial practical merit. First, we highlight convolution with upsampled filters, or 'atrous convolution', as a powerful tool in dense prediction tasks. Atrous convolution allows us to explicitly control the resolution at which feature responses are computed within Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. It also allows us to effectively enlarge the field of view of filters to incorporate larger context without increasing the number of parameters or the amount of computation. Second, we propose atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP) to robustly segment objects at multiple scales. ASPP probes an incoming convolutional feature layer with filters at multiple sampling rates and effective fields-of-views, thus capturing objects as well as image context at multiple scales. Third, we improve the localization of object boundaries by combining methods from DCNNs and probabilistic graphical models. The commonly deployed combination of max-pooling and downsampling in DCNNs achieves invariance but has a toll on localization accuracy. We overcome this by combining the responses at the final DCNN layer with a fully connected Conditional Random Field (CRF), which is shown both qualitatively and quantitatively to improve localization performance. Our proposed "DeepLab" system sets the new state-of-art at the PASCAL VOC-2012 semantic image segmentation task, reaching 79.7% mIOU in the test set, and advances the results on three other datasets: PASCAL-Context, PASCAL-Person-Part, and Cityscapes. All of our code is made publicly available online.

10,120 citations