scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Xiaoming Huang

Bio: Xiaoming Huang is an academic researcher from Southeast University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Asphalt & Catalysis. The author has an hindex of 39, co-authored 216 publications receiving 4986 citations. Previous affiliations of Xiaoming Huang include Eindhoven University of Technology & Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the pore structures of OPC and ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS) were investigated in respect to their pore structure, chloride diffusion coefficients, internal and external chloride-binding capabilities by expression method and leaching method and the microstructure analysis on Friedel's salt.

311 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: One-step valorization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol using a CuMgAlOx catalyst results in high monomer yield (23 wt%) without char formation and Phenolic hydroxyl groups were found to be the main actors in repolymerization and char formation.
Abstract: One-step valorization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol using a CuMgAlOx catalyst results in high monomer yield (23 wt?%) without char formation. Aromatics are the main products. The catalyst combines excellent deoxygenation with low ring-hydrogenation activity. Almost half of the monomer fraction is free from oxygen. Elemental analysis of the THF-soluble lignin residue after 8 h reaction showed a 68?% reduction in O/C and 24?% increase in H/C atomic ratios as compared to the starting Protobind P1000 lignin. Prolonged reaction times enhanced lignin depolymerization and reduced the amount of repolymerized products. Phenolic hydroxyl groups were found to be the main actors in repolymerization and char formation. 2D HSQC NMR analysis evidenced that ethanol reacts by alkylation and esterification with lignin fragments. Alkylation was found to play an important role in suppressing repolymerization. Ethanol acts as a capping agent, stabilizing the highly reactive phenolic intermediates by O-alkylating the hydroxyl groups and by C-alkylating the aromatic rings. The use of ethanol is significantly more effective in producing monomers and avoiding char than the use of methanol. A possible reaction network of the reactions between the ethanol and lignin fragments is discussed.

300 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Quantitative analyses of light-harvesting efficiency (LHE) and electron-transfer yield (Φ(ET)) for the QDSCs are investigated for the first time and it is revealed that the LHE increases in the long wavelength region with the addition of large size TiO(2) particles to the transparent film.
Abstract: At present, the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is still much lower than conventional DSCs. Appropriate porous TiO2 photoanodes for QDSCs need to be further investigated, and optimization of the nanoparticle-based photoanodes is highly desirable as well. In this article, the influence of the structural properties of various TiO2 photoanodes on CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cells have been systematically studied. Quantitative analyses of light-harvesting efficiency (LHE) and electron-transfer yield (ΦET) for the QDSCs are investigated for the first time. It is revealed that the LHE increases in the long wavelength region with the addition of large size TiO2 particles to the transparent film. In the meantime, the balance between the light scattering and surface area also needs to be controlled, which can significantly restrain the dark current of the device. A double-layer photoanodic structure can give 4.92% of light-to-electricity conversion efficiency with a photoactive area of 0.15 cm2.

273 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a thermocatalytic process for the depolymerization of lignin in supercritical ethanol over a CuMgAlOx catalyst is described.

230 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the role of mixed oxides in depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol was investigated, and the results showed that the mixture of Cu and basic sites catalyzes Guerbet and esterification reactions.
Abstract: We investigated the role of Cu–Mg–Al mixed oxides in depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol. A series of mixed oxides with varying Cu content and (Cu+Mg)/Al ratio were prepared. The optimum catalyst containing 20 wt % Cu and having a (Cu+Mg)/Al ratio of 4 yielded 36 wt % monomers without formation of char after reaction at 340 °C for 4 h. Comparison with Cu/MgO and Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalysts emphasized the excellent performance of Cu–Mg–Al oxides. These mixed oxides catalyze the reaction between formaldehyde and ethanol, which limits polymerization reactions between phenolic products and formaldehyde. The combination of Cu and basic sites catalyzes the associated Guerbet and esterification reactions. These reactions also protect lignin side-chains (e.g., aldehyde groups). Lewis acid sites of the catalyst, mainly Cu and Al cations, catalyze C- and O-alkylation reactions that protect phenolic products and phenolic moieties in lignin oligomers. Hydrogen produced by dehydrogenation reactions is in...

157 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a new state-of-the-art implementation of the iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials) Key Laborotary of Catalysis, which automates the very labor-intensive and therefore expensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process ofalysis.
Abstract: and Fuels Changzhi Li,† Xiaochen Zhao,† Aiqin Wang,† George W. Huber,†,‡ and Tao Zhang*,† †State Key Laborotary of Catalysis, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China ‡Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of WisconsinMadison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States

1,977 citations

01 Feb 1995
TL;DR: In this paper, the unpolarized absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the fundamental vibrational transitions of the chiral molecule, 4-methyl-2-oxetanone, are calculated ab initio using DFT, MP2, and SCF methodologies and a 5S4P2D/3S2P (TZ2P) basis set.
Abstract: : The unpolarized absorption and circular dichroism spectra of the fundamental vibrational transitions of the chiral molecule, 4-methyl-2-oxetanone, are calculated ab initio. Harmonic force fields are obtained using Density Functional Theory (DFT), MP2, and SCF methodologies and a 5S4P2D/3S2P (TZ2P) basis set. DFT calculations use the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA), BLYP, and Becke3LYP (B3LYP) density functionals. Mid-IR spectra predicted using LSDA, BLYP, and B3LYP force fields are of significantly different quality, the B3LYP force field yielding spectra in clearly superior, and overall excellent, agreement with experiment. The MP2 force field yields spectra in slightly worse agreement with experiment than the B3LYP force field. The SCF force field yields spectra in poor agreement with experiment.The basis set dependence of B3LYP force fields is also explored: the 6-31G* and TZ2P basis sets give very similar results while the 3-21G basis set yields spectra in substantially worse agreements with experiment. jg

1,652 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review provides a summary and perspective of the extensive research that has been devoted to each of these three interconnected biorefinery aspects, ranging from industrially well-established techniques to the latest cutting edge innovations.
Abstract: In pursuit of more sustainable and competitive biorefineries, the effective valorisation of lignin is key. An alluring opportunity is the exploitation of lignin as a resource for chemicals. Three technological biorefinery aspects will determine the realisation of a successful lignin-to-chemicals valorisation chain, namely (i) lignocellulose fractionation, (ii) lignin depolymerisation, and (iii) upgrading towards targeted chemicals. This review provides a summary and perspective of the extensive research that has been devoted to each of these three interconnected biorefinery aspects, ranging from industrially well-established techniques to the latest cutting edge innovations. To navigate the reader through the overwhelming collection of literature on each topic, distinct strategies/topics were delineated and summarised in comprehensive overview figures. Upon closer inspection, conceptual principles arise that rationalise the success of certain methodologies, and more importantly, can guide future research to further expand the portfolio of promising technologies. When targeting chemicals, a key objective during the fractionation and depolymerisation stage is to minimise lignin condensation (i.e. formation of resistive carbon–carbon linkages). During fractionation, this can be achieved by either (i) preserving the (native) lignin structure or (ii) by tolerating depolymerisation of the lignin polymer but preventing condensation through chemical quenching or physical removal of reactive intermediates. The latter strategy is also commonly applied in the lignin depolymerisation stage, while an alternative approach is to augment the relative rate of depolymerisation vs. condensation by enhancing the reactivity of the lignin structure towards depolymerisation. Finally, because depolymerised lignins often consist of a complex mixture of various compounds, upgrading of the raw product mixture through convergent transformations embodies a promising approach to decrease the complexity. This particular upgrading approach is termed funneling, and includes both chemocatalytic and biological strategies.

1,466 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review provides a “beginning‐to‐end” analysis of the recent advances reported in lignin valorisation, with particular emphasis on the improved understanding of lign in's biosynthesis and structure.
Abstract: Lignin is an abundant biopolymer with a high carbon content and high aromaticity. Despite its potential as a raw material for the fuel and chemical industries, lignin remains the most poorly utilised of the lignocellulosic biopolymers. Effective valorisation of lignin requires careful fine-tuning of multiple "upstream" (i.e., lignin bioengineering, lignin isolation and "early-stage catalytic conversion of lignin") and "downstream" (i.e., lignin depolymerisation and upgrading) process stages, demanding input and understanding from a broad array of scientific disciplines. This review provides a "beginning-to-end" analysis of the recent advances reported in lignin valorisation. Particular emphasis is placed on the improved understanding of lignin's biosynthesis and structure, differences in structure and chemical bonding between native and technical lignins, emerging catalytic valorisation strategies, and the relationships between lignin structure and catalyst performance.

1,390 citations