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Y. Chéron

Bio: Y. Chéron is an academic researcher from ENSEEIHT. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 119 citations.

Papers
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Book ChapterDOI
Y. Chéron1
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: This chapter will focus on the design of the non-reversible series resonant converter.
Abstract: After the introduction and justification of several more or less well known and complicated conversion topologies based on series resonance, this chapter will focus on the design of the non-reversible series resonant converter. Following this, a brief description will be given concerning a collection of DC/DC and DC/AC converters developed under various industrial contracts by the Laboratoire d’Electrotechnique et d’Electronique Industrielle (L.E.E.L), Toulouse, France.

157 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the design and properties of active acoustic metamaterials can be found, as well as an overview of future directions in the field of sound manipulation.
Abstract: Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity–time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field. Acoustic metamaterials can be used manipulate sound waves with a high degree of control. Their applications include acoustic imaging and cloaking. This Review outlines the designs and properties of these materials, discussing transformation acoustics theory, anisotropic materials and active acoustic metamaterials.

1,299 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The increasing use of recombinantly expressed therapeutic proteins in the pharmaceutical industry has highlighted issues such as their stability during long-term storage and means of efficacious delivery that avoid adverse immunogenic side effects as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The increasing use of recombinantly expressed therapeutic proteins in the pharmaceutical industry has highlighted issues such as their stability during long-term storage and means of efficacious delivery that avoid adverse immunogenic side effects. Controlled chemical modifications, such as substitutions, acylation and PEGylation, have fulfilled some but not all of their promises, while hydrogels and lipid-based formulations could well be developed into generic delivery systems. Strategies to curb the aggregation and misfolding of proteins during storage are likely to benefit from the recent surge of interest in protein fibrillation. This might in turn lead to generally accepted guidelines and tests to avoid unforeseen adverse effects in drug delivery.

974 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the underlying principles and unique optical applications of structures exhibiting near-zero dielectric permittivity and/or magnetic permeability are reviewed, and the timely relevance to nonlinear, non-reciprocal and non-local effects is highlighted.
Abstract: The underlying principles and unique optical applications of structures exhibiting near-zero dielectric permittivity and/or magnetic permeability are reviewed. The timely relevance to nonlinear, non-reciprocal and non-local effects is highlighted. Structures with near-zero parameters (for example, media with near-zero relative permittivity and/or relative permeability, and thus a near-zero refractive index) exhibit a number of unique features, such as the decoupling of spatial and temporal field variations, which enable the exploration of qualitatively different wave dynamics. This Review summarizes the underlying principles and salient features, physical realizations and technological potential of these structures. In doing so, we revisit their distinctive impact on multiple optical processes, including scattering, guiding, trapping and emission of light. Their role in emphasizing secondary responses of matter such as nonlinear, non-reciprocal and non-local effects is also discussed.

636 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jun 2017-Science
TL;DR: These studies, which combine traditional methods with modern approaches, illustrate how a molecular understanding of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism can guide hypothesis-driven research into the roles these reactions play in both microbiota and host biology.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Humans ingest a multitude of small molecules that are foreign to the body (xenobiotics), including dietary components, environmental chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The trillions of microorganisms that inhabit our gastrointestinal tract (the human gut microbiota) can directly alter the chemical structures of such compounds, thus modifying their lifetimes, bioavailabilities, and biological effects. Our knowledge of how gut microbial transformations of xenobiotics affect human health is in its infancy, which is surprising given the importance of the gut microbiota. We currently lack an understanding of the extent to which this metabolism varies between individuals, the mechanisms by which these microbial activities influence human biology, and how we might rationally manipulate these reactions. This deficiency stems largely from the difficulty of connecting this microbial chemistry to specific organisms, genes, and enzymes. ADVANCES Over the past several decades, studies of gut microbiota–mediated modification of xenobiotics have revealed that these organisms collectively have a larger metabolic repertoire than human cells. The chemical differences between human and microbial transformations of ingested compounds arise not only from the increased diversity of enzymes present in this complex and variable community but also from the distinct selection pressures that have shaped these activities. For example, whereas host metabolism evolved to facilitate excretion of many xenobiotics from the body, microbial modifications of these compounds and their human metabolites often support microbial growth through provision of nutrients or production of energy. Notably, the chemistry of microbial transformations often opposes or reverses that of host metabolism, altering the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of xenobiotics and associated metabolites. The range of xenobiotics subject to gut microbial metabolism is impressive and expanding. Gut microbes modify many classes of dietary compounds, including complex polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and phytochemicals. These metabolic reactions are linked to a variety of health benefits, as well as disease susceptibilities. Gut microbes are also able to transform industrial chemicals and pollutants, altering their toxicities and lifetimes in the body. Similarly, microbial transformations of drugs can change their pharmacokinetic properties, be critical for prodrug activation, and lead to undesirable side effects or loss of efficacy. In the vast majority of cases, the individual microbes and enzymes that mediate these reactions are unknown. Fueled by findings underscoring the relevance of microbial xenobiotic metabolism to human health, scientists are increasingly seeking to discover and manipulate the enzymatic chemistry involved in these transformations. Recent work exploring how gut microbes metabolize the drugs digoxin and irinotecan, as well as the dietary nutrient choline, provides guidance for such investigations. These studies, which combine traditional methods with modern approaches, illustrate how a molecular understanding of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism can guide hypothesis-driven research into the roles these reactions play in both microbiota and host biology. OUTLOOK We still face a myriad of challenges in understanding the gut microbiota’s contribution to xenobiotic metabolism. It is imperative that we connect the many known microbial transformations with the genes and enzymes responsible for these activities, and knowledge of enzyme mechanism and biochemical logic will facilitate this objective. There also remains a great need to uncover currently unappreciated activities associated with this community. Revealing the full scope of microbially mediated transformations in the gut may give us new insights into the many variable and contradictory studies regarding the effects of diet, pollutants, and drugs on human health. Microbial genes and enzymes will provide both specific targets for manipulation and diagnostic markers that can be incorporated into clinical studies and practice. Ultimately, a molecular understanding of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism will inform personalized nutrition, toxicology risk assessment, precision medicine, and drug development.

599 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jul 2019-Science
TL;DR: A formalism—matrix Fourier optics—for treating polarization in paraxial diffractive optics is introduced, a powerful generalization of a large body of past work on optical elements in which polarization may vary spatially.
Abstract: Recent developments have enabled the practical realization of optical elements in which the polarization of light may vary spatially. We present an extension of Fourier optics-matrix Fourier optics-for understanding these devices and apply it to the design and realization of metasurface gratings implementing arbitrary, parallel polarization analysis. We show how these gratings enable a compact, full-Stokes polarization camera without standard polarization optics. Our single-shot polarization camera requires no moving parts, specially patterned pixels, or conventional polarization optics and may enable the widespread adoption of polarization imaging in machine vision, remote sensing, and other areas.

410 citations