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Y. R. Shen

Bio: Y. R. Shen is an academic researcher from University of California, Berkeley. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Liquid crystal & Monolayer. The author has an hindex of 98, co-authored 476 publication(s) receiving 37313 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Y. R. Shen include University of Paris & Harvard University.
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01 May 1984
Abstract: Introduction. Nonlinear Optical Susceptibilities. General Description of Wave Propagation in Nonlinear Media. Electrooptical and Magnetooptical Effects. Optical Rectification and Optical Field-Induced Magnetization. Sum-Frequency Generation. Harmonic Generation. Difference Frequency Generation. Parametric Amplification and Oscillation. Stimulated Raman Scattering. Stimulated Light Scattering. Two-Photon Absorption. High-Resolution Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy. Four-Wave Mixing. Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy. Optical-Field-Induced Birefringence. Self-Focusing. Multiphoton Spectroscopy. Detection of Rare Atoms and Molecules. Laser Manipulation of Particles. Transient Coherent Optical Effects. Strong Interaction of Light with Atoms. Infrared Multiphoton Excitation and Dissociation of Molecules. Laser Isotope Separation. Surface Nonlinear Optics. Nonlinear Optics in Optical Waveguides. Optical Breakdown. Nonlinear Optical Effects in Plasmas. Index.

5,309 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Y. R. Shen1Institutions (1)
09 Feb 1989-Nature
Abstract: Optical second-harmonic generation and the related technique of infrared – visible light sum-frequency generation are extremely versatile tools for studies of many kinds of surfaces and interfaces. With the help of ultra-short laser pulses, they can be used to monitor surface dynamics and reactions with sub-picosecond time resolution.

1,899 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Q. Du1, Q. Du2, Richard Superfine1, Richard Superfine2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: Using infrared-visible sum-frequency generation, the OH stretch vibrational spectra of water at the vapor/water interface are obtained and it is deduced that more than 20% of the surface water molecules have one free OH projecting into the vapor.
Abstract: Using infrared-visible sum-frequency generation we have obtained the OH stretch vibrational spectra of water at the vapor/water interface. From the spectra, we deduce that more than 20% of the surface water molecules have one free OH projecting into the vapor. The spectrum is weakly temperature dependent from 10 to 80 \ifmmode^\circ\else\textdegree\fi{}C. A monolayer of fatty alcohol on water surface terminates the free OH groups and induces an icelike structure in the spectrum.

860 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Second-order nonlinear optics can be used to quantitatively determine the orientation of chemical bonds or submoieties of a fairly complicated molecule at an interface, and therefore completely map out its orientation and conformation. As a specific example, we have studied pentyl-cyanoterphenyl molecules at the air-water interface. We have measured the orientation of all three parts of the molecule (cyano head group, terphenyl ring, and pentyl chain) by optical second-harmonic generation and infrared-visible sum-frequency generation. A quantitatively consistent picture of the molecular configuration has been obtained. The technique can be applied to situations where other methods would fail (e.g., the surface of neat liquids or buried interfaces).

738 citations

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Steven J. Plimpton1Institutions (1)
01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

24,496 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Although gold is the subject of one of the most ancient themes of investigation in science, its renaissance now leads to an exponentially increasing number of publications, especially in the context of emerging nanoscience and nanotechnology with nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). We will limit the present review to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), also called gold colloids. AuNPs are the most stable metal nanoparticles, and they present fascinating aspects such as their assembly of multiple types involving materials science, the behavior of the individual particles, size-related electronic, magnetic and optical properties (quantum size effect), and their applications to catalysis and biology. Their promises are in these fields as well as in the bottom-up approach of nanotechnology, and they will be key materials and building block in the 21st century. Whereas the extraction of gold started in the 5th millennium B.C. near Varna (Bulgaria) and reached 10 tons per year in Egypt around 1200-1300 B.C. when the marvelous statue of Touthankamon was constructed, it is probable that “soluble” gold appeared around the 5th or 4th century B.C. in Egypt and China. In antiquity, materials were used in an ecological sense for both aesthetic and curative purposes. Colloidal gold was used to make ruby glass 293 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 293−346

11,193 citations

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Abstract: The optical properties of metal nanoparticles have long been of interest in physical chemistry, starting with Faraday's investigations of colloidal gold in the middle 1800s. More recently, new lithographic techniques as well as improvements to classical wet chemistry methods have made it possible to synthesize noble metal nanoparticles with a wide range of sizes, shapes, and dielectric environments. In this feature article, we describe recent progress in the theory of nanoparticle optical properties, particularly methods for solving Maxwell's equations for light scattering from particles of arbitrary shape in a complex environment. Included is a description of the qualitative features of dipole and quadrupole plasmon resonances for spherical particles; a discussion of analytical and numerical methods for calculating extinction and scattering cross-sections, local fields, and other optical properties for nonspherical particles; and a survey of applications to problems of recent interest involving triangula...

8,366 citations

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Ulrike Diebold1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Titanium dioxide is the most investigated single-crystalline system in the surface science of metal oxides, and the literature on rutile (1 1 0), (1 0 0), (0 0 1), and anatase surfaces is reviewed This paper starts with a summary of the wide variety of technical fields where TiO 2 is of importance The bulk structure and bulk defects (as far as relevant to the surface properties) are briefly reviewed Rules to predict stable oxide surfaces are exemplified on rutile (1 1 0) The surface structure of rutile (1 1 0) is discussed in some detail Theoretically predicted and experimentally determined relaxations of surface geometries are compared, and defects (step edge orientations, point and line defects, impurities, surface manifestations of crystallographic shear planes—CSPs) are discussed, as well as the image contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) The controversy about the correct model for the (1×2) reconstruction appears to be settled Different surface preparation methods, such as reoxidation of reduced crystals, can cause a drastic effect on surface geometries and morphology, and recommendations for preparing different TiO 2 (1 1 0) surfaces are given The structure of the TiO 2 (1 0 0)-(1×1) surface is discussed and the proposed models for the (1×3) reconstruction are critically reviewed Very recent results on anatase (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces are included The electronic structure of stoichiometric TiO 2 surfaces is now well understood Surface defects can be detected with a variety of surface spectroscopies The vibrational structure is dominated by strong Fuchs–Kliewer phonons, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectra often need to be deconvoluted in order to render useful information about adsorbed molecules The growth of metals (Li, Na, K, Cs, Ca, Al, Ti, V, Nb, Cr, Mo, Mn, Fe, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) as well as some metal oxides on TiO 2 is reviewed The tendency to ‘wet’ the overlayer, the growth morphology, the epitaxial relationship, and the strength of the interfacial oxidation/reduction reaction all follow clear trends across the periodic table, with the reactivity of the overlayer metal towards oxygen being the most decisive factor Alkali atoms form ordered superstructures at low coverages Recent progress in understanding the surface structure of metals in the ‘strong-metal support interaction’ (SMSI) state is summarized Literature is reviewed on the adsorption and reaction of a wide variety of inorganic molecules (H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O, CO, CO 2 , N 2 , NH 3 , NO x , sulfur- and halogen-containing molecules, rare gases) as well as organic molecules (carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, alkynes, pyridine and its derivates, silanes, methyl halides) The application of TiO 2 -based systems in photo-active devices is discussed, and the results on UHV-based photocatalytic studies are summarized The review ends with a brief conclusion and outlook of TiO 2 -based surface science for the future

6,656 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The interest in nanoscale materials stems from the fact that new properties are acquired at this length scale and, equally important, that these properties are equally important.
Abstract: The interest in nanoscale materials stems from the fact that new properties are acquired at this length scale and, equally important, that these properties * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone, 404-8940292; fax, 404-894-0294; e-mail, mostafa.el-sayed@ † Case Western Reserve UniversitysMillis 2258. ‡ Phone, 216-368-5918; fax, 216-368-3006; e-mail, § Georgia Institute of Technology. 1025 Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 1025−1102

6,510 citations


Author's H-index: 98

No. of papers from the Author in previous years