scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Yang Zhao

Other affiliations: Purdue University, Peking University, Henan University  ...read more
Bio: Yang Zhao is an academic researcher from Chinese Academy of Sciences. The author has contributed to research in topics: Computer science & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 42, co-authored 115 publications receiving 8727 citations. Previous affiliations of Yang Zhao include Purdue University & Peking University.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
09 Aug 2013-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that pluripotent stem cells can be generated from mouse somatic cells at a frequency up to 0.2% using a combination of seven small-molecule compounds, which resemble embryonic stem cells in terms of their gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and potential for differentiation and germline transmission.
Abstract: Pluripotent stem cells can be induced from somatic cells, providing an unlimited cell resource, with potential for studying disease and use in regenerative medicine. However, genetic manipulation and technically challenging strategies such as nuclear transfer used in reprogramming limit their clinical applications. Here, we show that pluripotent stem cells can be generated from mouse somatic cells at a frequency up to 0.2% using a combination of seven small-molecule compounds. The chemically induced pluripotent stem cells resemble embryonic stem cells in terms of their gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and potential for differentiation and germline transmission. By using small molecules, exogenous "master genes" are dispensable for cell fate reprogramming. This chemical reprogramming strategy has potential use in generating functional desirable cell types for clinical applications.

1,200 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel three‐stage method to efficiently direct the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into hepatic cells in serum‐free medium is reported, which should facilitate searching the molecular mechanisms underlying human liver development, and form the basis for hepatocyte transplantation and drug tests.

656 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The dynamics of ABA metabolic pools and signaling that affects many of its physiological functions are reviewed.
Abstract: Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone regulating plant growth, development, and stress responses. It has an essential role in multiple physiological processes of plants, such as stomatal closure, cuticular wax accumulation, leaf senescence, bud dormancy, seed germination, osmotic regulation, and growth inhibition among many others. Abscisic acid controls downstream responses to abiotic and biotic environmental changes through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. During the past 20 years, ABA biosynthesis and many of its signaling pathways have been well characterized. Here we review the dynamics of ABA metabolic pools and signaling that affects many of its physiological functions.

589 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was found that p53 siRNA and UTF1 enhanced the efficiency of iPSC generation up to 100-fold, even when the oncogene c-MYC was removed from the combinations.

501 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show that human iPS cells, which are similar to human ES cells, can be efficiently induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells.
Abstract: Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, and can proliferate intensively and differentiate into a variety of cell types However, the hepatic differentiation of human iPS cells has not yet been reported In this report, human iPS cells were induced to differentiate into hepatic cells by a stepwise protocol The expression of liver cell markers and liver-related functions of the human iPS cell-derived cells were monitored and compared with that of differentiated human ES cells and primary human hepatocytes Approximately 60% of the differentiated human iPS cells at day 7 expressed hepatic markers alpha fetoprotein and Alb The differentiated cells at day 21 exhibited liver cell functions including albumin Asecretion, glycogen synthesis, urea production and inducible cytochrome P450 activity The expression of hepatic markers and liver-related functions of the iPS cell-derived hepatic cells were comparable to that of the human ES cell-derived hepatic cells These results show that human iPS cells, which are similar to human ES cells, can be efficiently induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells

481 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
16 Apr 2020-Cell
TL;DR: It is demonstrating that cross-neutralizing antibodies targeting conserved S epitopes can be elicited upon vaccination, and it is shown that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of Sars- coV- 2 S and SARS S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SATS among humans.

7,219 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Oct 2016-Cell
TL;DR: Core stress-signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing.

2,853 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concerted and coordinated response that contained SARS is a triumph for global public health and provides a new paradigm for the detection and control of future emerging infectious disease threats.
Abstract: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is responsible for the first pandemic of the 21st century. Within months after its emergence in Guangdong Province in mainland China, it had affected more than 8000 patients and caused 774 deaths in 26 countries on five continents. It illustrated dramatically the potential of air travel and globalization for the dissemination of an emerging infectious disease and highlighted the need for a coordinated global response to contain such disease threats. We review the cause, epidemiology, and clinical features of the disease.

2,167 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Feb 2011-Nature
TL;DR: A robust and efficient process is established to direct the differentiation of human PSCs into intestinal tissue in vitro using a temporal series of growth factor manipulations to mimic embryonic intestinal development and indicates that human intestinal stem cells form de novo during development.
Abstract: Studies in embryonic development have guided successful efforts to direct the differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into specific organ cell types in vitro. For example, human PSCs have been differentiated into monolayer cultures of liver hepatocytes and pancreatic endocrine cells that have therapeutic efficacy in animal models of liver disease and diabetes, respectively. However, the generation of complex three-dimensional organ tissues in vitro remains a major challenge for translational studies. Here we establish a robust and efficient process to direct the differentiation of human PSCs into intestinal tissue in vitro using a temporal series of growth factor manipulations to mimic embryonic intestinal development. This involved activin-induced definitive endoderm formation, FGF/Wnt-induced posterior endoderm pattering, hindgut specification and morphogenesis, and a pro-intestinal culture system to promote intestinal growth, morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. The resulting three-dimensional intestinal 'organoids' consisted of a polarized, columnar epithelium that was patterned into villus-like structures and crypt-like proliferative zones that expressed intestinal stem cell markers. The epithelium contained functional enterocytes, as well as goblet, Paneth and enteroendocrine cells. Using this culture system as a model to study human intestinal development, we identified that the combined activity of WNT3A and FGF4 is required for hindgut specification whereas FGF4 alone is sufficient to promote hindgut morphogenesis. Our data indicate that human intestinal stem cells form de novo during development. We also determined that NEUROG3, a pro-endocrine transcription factor that is mutated in enteric anendocrinosis, is both necessary and sufficient for human enteroendocrine cell development in vitro. PSC-derived human intestinal tissue should allow for unprecedented studies of human intestinal development and disease.

1,553 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Aug 2009-Nature
TL;DR: Functional analyses of 34 p53-regulated genes demonstrate that the p53–p21 pathway serves as a barrier not only in tumorigenicity, but also in iPS cell generation in mouse and human fibroblasts.
Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from somatic cells by the introduction of Oct3/4 (also known as Pou5f1), Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, in mouse and in human. The efficiency of this process, however, is low. Pluripotency can be induced without c-Myc, but with even lower efficiency. A p53 (also known as TP53 in humans and Trp53 in mice) short-interfering RNA (siRNA) was recently shown to promote human iPS cell generation, but the specificity and mechanisms remain to be determined. Here we report that up to 10% of transduced mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking p53 became iPS cells, even without the Myc retrovirus. The p53 deletion also promoted the induction of integration-free mouse iPS cells with plasmid transfection. Furthermore, in the p53-null background, iPS cells were generated from terminally differentiated T lymphocytes. The suppression of p53 also increased the efficiency of human iPS cell generation. DNA microarray analyses identified 34 p53-regulated genes that are common in mouse and human fibroblasts. Functional analyses of these genes demonstrate that the p53-p21 pathway serves as a barrier not only in tumorigenicity, but also in iPS cell generation.

1,330 citations