Yasmin E. Abdel-Mobdy
Bio: Yasmin E. Abdel-Mobdy is an academic researcher from Cairo University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Lead acetate & Toxicity. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 8 publications receiving 254 citations.
TL;DR: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats and people are advised to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.
Abstract: Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland.
TL;DR: The results of the present work advice the need to avoid exposure of humans to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.
Abstract: The toxic effect of Pb ion (lead acetate) was investigated using male albino rats, which was ingested at 1/20, 1/40, and 1/60 sublethal doses. Relative to normal control, the ingestion of Pb(2+) induced significant stimulation in ALT and AST activity. In addition, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb(2+) treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates as well as lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. These observations were gradually paralleled across the experiment dose of the three doses of intoxicated Pb(2+). In the case of blood picture, Pb(2+) ingestion significantly reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBC count of intoxicated rat's blood, while the plasma levels of T3 and T4 and blood WBC count were insignificantly decreased or unchanged. All results of the present study showed that the Pb(2+) ingestion was more effective in the case of the high dose (1/20 LD(50)) than that of the low dose (1/60 LD(50)) ingestion relative to the normal healthy control. The results of the present work advice the need to avoid exposure of humans to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of these insecticides on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by using the leaf dipping technique was analyzed.
Abstract: Chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb insecticides exhibit good efficiency for control lepidopteran pests. The current study is a comprehensive analysis of the effect of lethal and sublethal concentrations of these insecticides on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by using the leaf dipping technique. The LC50 values ranged from 0.06 to 1.07 mg/L, and 0.005 to 0.81 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb, respectively. Our results showed that the treatment of the 2nd instar larvae with LC50 concentrations of these insecticides significantly increased the length of larval and pupal duration as well as pupal weight in most cases. While, no significant differences have been found in the percentage of hatchability except for LC50 equivalent of indoxacarb. Female behavior regarding calling activity decreased by 50–60% following exposure to the LC50 concentration of both insecticides. Gas chromatography analysis results showed that both insecticides lowered pheromone titer except at chlorantraniliprole LC50 equivalent for (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadien-l-ol acetate, and indoxacarb LC10 equivalent for (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate. Additionally, the activity of mixed-function oxidases and glutathione S-transferase were elevated relative to control. The carboxylesterase activity significantly increased when assayed with both chlorantraniliprole concentrations and indoxacarb LC10 equivalent. These results indicate that chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb could be effective for S. littoralis control.
TL;DR: The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby.
Abstract: The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby.
TL;DR: Assessment of relative toxicity of the technical fipronil and EMB alone and in mixture against S. littoralis suggested that lower doses of both insecticides in a binary mixture had potentiation effect against the larva and this mixture could be used in combination as field application for successful and effective control.
Abstract: Fipronil and emamectin benzoate (EMB) are effective insecticides for controlling cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. Fipronil works by blocking gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) gated chloride. In contrast, EMB is activating GABA transporters. The objectives of our study were to assess relative toxicity of the technical fipronil and EMB alone and in mixture against S. littoralis. In addition, the GABA content was simultaneously determined using HPLC. Technical fipronil and EMB and their mixtures were applied topically to the fourth-instar larvae, and their LD50 values were estimated after 48 h. Results demonstrated that the LD50 for EMB applied alone was 0.751 ng/larva which was much less than for fipronil 7.271 ng/larva. Each of the two insecticides alone showed a significant decrease in GABA content at LD10, LD25, and LD50 doses, while their mixtures induced GABA levels. The highest potentiation was observed when both insecticides were in a mixture at the ratio of LD10:LD10 which was associated with higher increase in GABA levels. Moreover, the weight of the alive larvae was less than that was in the untreated control. However, all mixtures exhibited potentiation effect, except for the mixture of fipronil at LD50 with EMB at LD10, LD25, and LD50 that had antagonistic effect correlated with the lowest decrease in GABA level. Results suggested that lower doses of both insecticides in a binary mixture had potentiation effect against S. littoralis. This mixture could be used in combination as field application for successful and effective control of S. littoralis and would also help in managing insecticide resistance.
TL;DR: The massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance are discussed.
Abstract: Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver”) and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb) has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb) effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well.
TL;DR: The endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals are reviewed to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.
Abstract: An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.
TL;DR: The oxidation of linoleates and cholesterol is discussed in some detail and the deleterious effects caused by the lipid peroxidation products are discussed.
Abstract: Lipid peroxidation can be defined as the oxidative deterioration of lipids containing any number of carbon-carbon double bonds. Lipid peroxidation is a well-established mechanism of cellular injury in both plants and animals, and is used as an indicator of oxidative stress in cells and tissues. Lipid peroxides are unstable and decompose to form a complex series of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds. The oxidation of linoleates and cholesterol is discussed in some detail. Analytical methods for studying lipid peroxidation were mentioned. Various kinds of antioxidants with different functions inhibit lipid peroxidation and the deleterious effects caused by the lipid peroxidation products.
TL;DR: The effects of CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic perovskites in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells, human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells and murine primary hippocampal neurons are reported by using multiple assays and electron microscopy studies.
Abstract: New technologies launch novel materials; besides their performances in products, their health hazards must be tested. This applies to the lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 as well, which offers fulgurate applications in photovoltaic devices. We report the effects of CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic perovskites in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549), human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and murine primary hippocampal neurons by using multiple assays and electron microscopy studies. In cell culture media the major part of the dissolved CH3NH3PbI3 has a strong cell-type dependent effect. Hippocampal primary neurons and neuroblastoma cells suffer a massive apoptotic cell death, whereas exposure to lung epithelial cells dramatically alters the kinetics of proliferation, metabolic activity and cellular morphology without inducing noticeable cell death. Our findings underscore the critical importance of conducting further studies to investigate the effect of short and long-term exposure to CH3NH3PbI3 on health and environment.
TL;DR: Environmental and occupational exposure to a large number of chemicals occurs at various stages throughout human life, but some could pose a significant health risk, i.e. the exposure to environmental xenobiotic metals as lead, mercury, cadmium, etc.
Abstract: Environmental and occupational exposure to a large number of chemicals occurs at various stages throughout human life. Many of these are devoid of toxicity, but some could pose a significant health risk, i.e. the exposure to environmental xenobiotic metals as lead, mercury (Sinicropi et al. 2010a; Carocci et al. 2014), cadmium, etc. In particular, lead has long been a widespread public concern (Basha and Reddy 2010). Lead is one of the earliest heavy metals discovered by men. Due to its unique properties, as low melting point, softness, malleability, ductility, and resistance to corrosion, men have used lead for the last 5000 years in a wide range of applications.