Author

# Yiyu Yao

Other affiliations: Beijing University of Technology, Petra Christian University, Lakehead University ...read more

Bio: Yiyu Yao is an academic researcher from University of Regina. The author has contributed to research in topics: Rough set & Granular computing. The author has an hindex of 78, co-authored 443 publications receiving 24468 citations. Previous affiliations of Yiyu Yao include Beijing University of Technology & Petra Christian University.

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TL;DR: This paper provides an analysis of three-way decision rules in the classical rough set model and the decision-theoretic rough set models, enriched by ideas from Bayesian decision theory and hypothesis testing in statistics.

Abstract: The rough set theory approximates a concept by three regions, namely, the positive, boundary and negative regions. Rules constructed from the three regions are associated with different actions and decisions, which immediately leads to the notion of three-way decision rules. A positive rule makes a decision of acceptance, a negative rule makes a decision of rejection, and a boundary rule makes a decision of abstaining. This paper provides an analysis of three-way decision rules in the classical rough set model and the decision-theoretic rough set model. The results enrich the rough set theory by ideas from Bayesian decision theory and hypothesis testing in statistics. The connections established between the levels of tolerance for errors and costs of incorrect decisions make the rough set theory practical in applications.

1,088 citations

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TL;DR: This paper presents a framework for the formulation, interpretation, and comparison of neighborhood systems and rough set approximations using the more familiar notion of binary relations, and introduces a special class of neighborhood system, called 1-neighborhood systems.

Abstract: This paper presents a framework for the formulation, interpretation, and comparison of neighborhood systems and rough set approximations using the more familiar notion of binary relations. A special class of neighborhood systems, called 1-neighborhood systems, is introduced. Three extensions of Pawlak approximation operators are analyzed. Properties of neighborhood and approximation operators are studied, and their connections are examined.

967 citations

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TL;DR: This paper reviews and compares constructive and algebraic approaches in the study of rough set algebras and states axioms that must be satisfied by the operators.

Abstract: This paper reviews and compares constructive and algebraic approaches in the study of rough sets. In the constructive approach, one starts from a binary relation and defines a pair of lower and upper approximation operators using the binary relation. Different classes of rough set algebras are obtained from different types of binary relations. In the algebraic approach, one defines a pair of dual approximation operators and states axioms that must be satisfied by the operators. Various classes of rough set algebras are characterized by different sets of axioms. Axioms of approximation operators guarantee the existence of certain types of binary relations producing the same operators.

772 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown that some of the properties of Pawlak's rough set theory are special instances of those of MGRS, and several important measures are presented, which are re-interpreted in terms of a classic measure based on sets, the Marczewski-Steinhaus metric and the inclusion degree measure.

Abstract: The original rough set model was developed by Pawlak, which is mainly concerned with the approximation of sets described by a single binary relation on the universe. In the view of granular computing, the classical rough set theory is established through a single granulation. This paper extends Pawlak's rough set model to a multi-granulation rough set model (MGRS), where the set approximations are defined by using multi equivalence relations on the universe. A number of important properties of MGRS are obtained. It is shown that some of the properties of Pawlak's rough set theory are special instances of those of MGRS. Moreover, several important measures, such as accuracy [email protected], quality of [email protected] and precision of [email protected], are presented, which are re-interpreted in terms of a classic measure based on sets, the Marczewski-Steinhaus metric and the inclusion degree measure. A concept of approximation reduct is introduced to describe the smallest attribute subset that preserves the lower approximation and upper approximation of all decision classes in MGRS as well. Finally, we discuss how to extract decision rules using MGRS. Unlike the decision rules (''AND'' rules) from Pawlak's rough set model, the form of decision rules in MGRS is ''OR''. Several pivotal algorithms are also designed, which are helpful for applying this theory to practical issues. The multi-granulation rough set model provides an effective approach for problem solving in the context of multi granulations.

604 citations

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01 Dec 1992-International Journal of Human-computer Studies \/ International Journal of Man-machine Studies

TL;DR: This paper shows that if a given concept is approximated by one set, the same result given by the α-cut in the fuzzy set theory is obtained, and can derive both the algebraic and probabilistic rough set approximations.

Abstract: This paper explores the implications of approximating a concept based on the Bayesian decision procedure, which provides a plausible unification of the fuzzy set and rough set approaches for approximating a concept. We show that if a given concept is approximated by one set, the same result given by the α-cut in the fuzzy set theory is obtained. On the other hand, if a given concept is approximated by two sets, we can derive both the algebraic and probabilistic rough set approximations. Moreover, based on the well known principle of maximum (minimum) entropy, we give a useful interpretation of fuzzy intersection and union. Our results enhance the understanding and broaden the applications of both fuzzy and rough sets.

572 citations

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TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.

Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.

Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations

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9,185 citations

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TL;DR: This survey discusses the main approaches to text categorization that fall within the machine learning paradigm and discusses in detail issues pertaining to three different problems, namely, document representation, classifier construction, and classifier evaluation.

Abstract: The automated categorization (or classification) of texts into predefined categories has witnessed a booming interest in the last 10 years, due to the increased availability of documents in digital form and the ensuing need to organize them. In the research community the dominant approach to this problem is based on machine learning techniques: a general inductive process automatically builds a classifier by learning, from a set of preclassified documents, the characteristics of the categories. The advantages of this approach over the knowledge engineering approach (consisting in the manual definition of a classifier by domain experts) are a very good effectiveness, considerable savings in terms of expert labor power, and straightforward portability to different domains. This survey discusses the main approaches to text categorization that fall within the machine learning paradigm. We will discuss in detail issues pertaining to three different problems, namely, document representation, classifier construction, and classifier evaluation.

7,539 citations