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Author

Yoshinari Abe

Other affiliations: Tokyo Denki University
Bio: Yoshinari Abe is an academic researcher from Tokyo University of Science. The author has contributed to research in topics: Chondrite & Meteorite. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 29 publications receiving 373 citations. Previous affiliations of Yoshinari Abe include Tokyo Denki University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results strongly suggest that the FDNPP was damaged sufficiently to emit U fuel and fission products outside the containment vessel as aerosol particles, resulting in better understanding of what occurred in the plant during the early stages of the accident.
Abstract: Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray microbeam analyses revealed the detailed chemical nature of radioactive aerosol microparticles emitted during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, resulting in better understanding of what occurred in the plant during the early stages of the accident. Three spherical microparticles (∼2 μm, diameter) containing radioactive Cs were found in aerosol samples collected on March 14th and 15th, 2011, in Tsukuba, 172 km southwest of the FDNPP. SR-μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis detected the following 10 heavy elements in all three particles: Fe, Zn, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, and Ba. In addition, U was found for the first time in two of the particles, further confirmed by U L−edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra, implying that U fuel and its fission products were contained in these particles along with radioactive Cs. These results strongly suggest that the FDNPP was damaged sufficiently to emit U fuel and fission products outside the con...

143 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, roadside soil and dust samples from the immediate vicinity of the F1NPS were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS, synchrotron radiation micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (SR-m-XRF) analysis, and gamma spectrometry, with the aim of attributing sources to them.
Abstract: Copyright © 2018 by The Geochemical Society of Japan. The elements Fe, Zn, and Pb were also present. It has since been reported that very similar micron-scale spherical particles have been found 20 km northwest and 3 km south of the F1NPS (Satou et al., 2016; Furuki et al., 2017). Similar particles were isolated from dust on nonwoven fabric cloth and needles of Japanese cedar (Yamaguchi et al., 2016; Kogure et al., 2016). This revealed that such Cs-bearing particles were widely dispersed within the Fukushima region. Although their origin could be attributable to any of the various release events that occurred at the F1NPS, the exact source of the radionuclides is unclear. In this study, roadside soil and dust samples from the immediate vicinity of the F1NPS were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS, synchrotron radiation micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (SR-m-XRF) analysis, and gamma spectrometry, with the aim of attributing sources to them.

69 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Tetsuya Yokoyama, Kazuhide Nagashima, Izumi Nakai, Edward D. Young, Yoshinari Abe, Jérôme Aléon, Conel M. O'd. Alexander, Sachiko Amari, Yuri Amelin, Ken ichi Bajo, Martin Bizzarro, Audrey Bouvier, Richard W. Carlson, Marc Chaussidon, Byeon-Gak Choi, Nicolas Dauphas, Andrew M. Davis, Tommaso Di Rocco, Wataru Fujiya, Ryota Fukai, Ikshu Gautam, Makiko K. Haba, Yuki Hibiya, Hiroshi Hidaka, Hisashi Homma, Peter Hoppe, Gary R. Huss, K. Ichida, Tsuyoshi Iizuka, Trevor Ireland, Akira Ishikawa, Motoo Ito, Shoichi Itoh, Noriyuki Kawasaki, Noriko T. Kita, Kouki Kitajima, Thorsten Kleine, Shintaro Komatani, Alexander N. Krot, Ming-Chang Liu, Yuki Masuda, Kevin D. McKeegan, Mayu Morita, Kazuko Motomura, Frédéric Moynier, Ann N. Nguyen, Larry R. Nittler, M. Onose, Andreas Pack, Changkun Park, Laurette Piani, Liping Qin, Sara S. Russell, Naoya Sakamoto, Maria Schönbächler, Lauren Tafla, Haolan Tang, Kentaro Terada, Yasuko Terada, Tomohiro Usui, Sohei Wada, Meenakshi Wadhwa, Richard J. Walker, Katsuyuki Yamashita, Qing-Zhu Yin, Shigekazu Yoneda, Hiroharu Yui, Ai-Cheng Zhang, Harold C. Connolly, Dante S. Lauretta, Tomoki Nakamura, Hiroshi Naraoka, Takaaki Noguchi, Ryuji Okazaki, Kanako Sakamoto, Hikaru Yabuta, Masanao Abe, Masahiko Arakawa, Atsushi Fujii, Masahiro Hayakawa, Naoyuki Hirata, Naru Hirata, Rie Honda, Chikatoshi Honda, Satoshi Hosoda, Yuichi Iijima, H. Ikeda, Masateru Ishiguro, Yoshiaki Ishihara, Takahiro Iwata, Kosuke Kawahara, Shota Kikuchi, Kohei Kitazato, Koji Matsumoto, Moe Matsuoka, Tatsuhiro Michikami, Yuya Mimasu, Akira Miura, Tomokatsu Morota, Satoru Nakazawa, Noriyuki Namiki, Hirotomo Noda, Rina Noguchi, Naoko Ogawa, Kazunori Ogawa, Tatsuaki Okada, Chisato Okamoto, Go Ono, M. Ozaki, Takanao Saiki, Naoya Sakatani, Hirotaka Sawada, Hiroki Senshu, Yuri Shimaki, Kei Shirai, Seiji Sugita, Yuto Takei, Hiroshi Takeuchi, Satoshi Tanaka, Eri Tatsumi, Fuyuto Terui, Yuichi Tsuda, Ryudo Tsukizaki, Koji Wada, Sei-ichiro Watanabe, Manabu Yamada, Tetsuya Yamada, Yukio Yamamoto, Hajime Yano, Yasuhiro Yokota, Keisuke Yoshihara, Makoto Yoshikawa, Kent Yoshikawa, Shizuho Furuya, Kentaro Hatakeda, Tasuku Hayashi, Yuya Hitomi, K. Kumagai, Akiko Miyazaki, Aiko Nakato, M. Nishimura, Hiromichi Soejima, Ayako I. Suzuki, Toru Yada, Daiki Yamamoto, Kasumi Yogata, M. Yoshitake, Shogo Tachibana, Hisayoshi Yurimoto 
09 Jun 2022-Science
TL;DR: The authors measured the mineralogy and bulk chemical and isotopic compositions of Ryugu samples and concluded that the samples mainly consist of secondary materials that were formed by aqueous alteration in a parent body, from which Ryugu later formed.
Abstract: Carbonaceous meteorites are thought to be fragments of C-type (carbonaceous) asteroids. Samples of the C-type asteroid (162173) Ryugu were retrieved by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. We measured the mineralogy and bulk chemical and isotopic compositions of Ryugu samples. The samples are mainly composed of materials similar to those of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, particularly the CI (Ivuna-type) group. The samples consist predominantly of minerals formed in aqueous fluid on a parent planetesimal. The primary minerals were altered by fluids at a temperature of 37° ± 10°C, about 5.2−0.7+0.8 million (statistical) or 5.2−2.1+1.6 million (systematic) years after the formation of the first solids in the Solar System. After aqueous alteration, the Ryugu samples were likely never heated above ~100°C. The samples have a chemical composition that more closely resembles that of the Sun’s photosphere than other natural samples do. Description INTRODUCTION The Hayabusa2 spacecraft made two landings on the asteroid (162173) Ryugu in 2019, during which it collected samples of the surface material. Those samples were delivered to Earth in December 2020. The colors, shapes, and morphologies of the returned samples are consistent with those observed on Ryugu by Hayabusa2, indicating that they are representative of the asteroid. Laboratory analysis of the samples can determine the chemical composition of Ryugu and provide information on its formation and history. RATIONALE We used laboratory analysis to inform the following questions: (i) What are the elemental abundances of Ryugu? (ii) What are the isotopic compositions of Ryugu? (iii) Does Ryugu consist of primary materials produced in the disk from which the Solar System formed or of secondary materials produced in the asteroid or on a parent asteroid? (iv) When were Ryugu’s constituent materials formed? (v) What, if any, relationship does Ryugu have with meteorites? RESULTS We quantified the abundances of 66 elements in the Ryugu samples: H, Li, Be, C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U. There is a slight variation in chemical compositions between samples from the first and second touchdown sites, but the variations could be due to heterogeneity among the samples that were analyzed. The Cr-Ti isotopes and abundance of volatile elements are similar to those of carbonaceous meteorites in the CI (Ivuna-like) chondrite group. The Ryugu samples consist of the minerals magnetite, breunnerite, dolomite, and pyrrhotite as grains embedded in a matrix composed of serpentine and saponite. This mineral assemblage and the texture are also similar to those of CI meteorites. Anhydrous silicates are almost absent, which indicates extensive liquid water–rock reactions (aqueous alteration) in the material. We conclude that the samples mainly consist of secondary materials that were formed by aqueous alteration in a parent body, from which Ryugu later formed. The oxygen isotopes in the bulk Ryugu samples are also similar to those in CI chondrites. We used oxygen isotope thermometry to determine the temperature at which the dolomite and magnetite precipitated from an aqueous solution, which we found to be 37° ± 10°C. The 53Mn-53Cr isotopes date the aqueous alteration at 5.2−0.7+0.8 million (statistical) or 5.2−2.1+1.6 million (systematic) years after the birth of the Solar System. Phyllosilicate minerals are the main host of water in the Ryugu samples. The amount of structural water in Ryugu is similar to that in CI chondrites, but interlayer water is largely absent in Ryugu, which suggests a loss of interlayer water to space. The abundance of structural water and results from dehydration experiments indicate that the Ryugu samples remained below ~100°C from the time of aqueous alteration until the present. We ascribe the removal of interlayer water to a combination of impact heating, solar heating, solar wind irradiation, and long-term exposure to the ultrahigh vacuum of space. The loss of interlayer water from phyllosilicates could be responsible for the comet-like activity of some carbonaceous asteroids and the ejection of solid material from the surface of asteroid Bennu. CONCLUSION The Ryugu samples are most similar to CI chondrite meteorites but are more chemically pristine. The chemical composition of the Ryugu samples is a closer match to the Sun’s photosphere than to the composition of any other natural samples studied in laboratories. CI chondrites appear to have been modified on Earth or during atmospheric entry. Such modification of CI chondrites could have included the alteration of the structures of organics and phyllosilicates, the adsorption of terrestrial water, and the formation of sulfates and ferrihydrites. Those issues do not affect the Ryugu samples. Those modifications might have changed the albedo, porosity, and density of the CI chondrites, causing the observed differences between CI meteorites, Hayabusa2 measurements of Ryugu’s surface, and the Ryugu samples returned to Earth. Representative petrography of a Ryugu sample, designated C0002-C1001. Colors indicate elemental abundances determined from x-ray spectroscopy. Lines of iron, sulfur, and calcium are shown as red, green, and blue (RGB) color channels in that order. Combinations of these elements are assigned to specific minerals, as indicated in the legend. All visible minerals were formed by aqueous alteration on Ryugu’s parent body.

55 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the phase identification based on non-destructive analytical techniques using portable equipment is used for the analysis of art and archaeological objects. But p-XRD is relatively rare despite its importance for analysis of crystalline materials.
Abstract: Phase identification based on nondestructive analytical techniques using portable equipment is ideal for the analysis of art and archaeological objects. Portable(p)-XRF and p-Raman are very widely used for this purpose, yet p-XRD is relatively rare despite its importance for the analysis of crystalline materials. This paper overviews 6 types of p-XRD systems developed for analysis of art and archaeological materials. The characteristics of each system are compared. One of the p-XRD systems developed by the authors was brought to many museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt and Syria to characterize the cultural heritage artifacts, e.g., amulet made of Egyptian blue, blue painted pottery, and Islamic pottery from Egypt, jade from China, variscite from Syria, a Japanese classic painting drawn by Korin Ogata, and oil paintings drawn by Taro Okamoto. Practical application data are shown to demonstrate the potential ability of the method for analysis of various art and archaeological materials.

53 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used for onsite analysis of Ramesside cobalt blue-colored glasses and faiences from the 19th and 20th Dynasties.

51 citations


Cited by
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Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers have been known to provide accurate elemental data in a wide range of matrices as mentioned in this paper, and advances in the past two decades have now made the technology portable.
Abstract: Contemporary soil, agronomic, and environmental investigations require high quality data for the development of sound management decisions. For years, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been known to provide accurate elemental data in a wide range of matrices. However, advances in the past two decades have now made the technology portable. Improvements to spectrometer design have led to the replacement of many active source X-ray units with X-ray tubes that only emit X-rays when energized. Several generations of detector improvement have resulted in the current standard for many units, the silicon drift detector, which is capable of much lower limits of detection than its predecessors. Field portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometers offer many advantages over traditional techniques including speed, portability, wide dynamic range of elemental quantification, little/no need for sample pretreatment, and simplicity. Furthermore, PXRF analyses are nondestructive, allowing for analyzed samples to be preserved for future use. This review presents an overview of the development, operational theory, and contemporary uses of PXRF. Also, benefits and limitations to PXRF use are presented. Many industrial uses are covered, but deference is paid to rapidly advancing environmental, pedological, and agronomic applications of PXRF. Summarily, PXRF offers a range of benefits not possible with traditional laboratory techniques.

212 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sediment source fingerprinting utilizes the diagnostic physical, chemical and biological properties (i.e., tracers) of source materials to enable samples of collected sediment to be apportioned to these sources as mentioned in this paper.

163 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an overview of the application of scanning macro-XRF with mobile instruments for the investigation of historical paintings is presented, compared to synchrotron-based macro XRF imaging and Neutron Activation Auto-Radiography.

109 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on mobile non-destructive subsurface imaging and depth profiling techniques, which allow for the in-situ investigation of easel paintings, i.e. paintings on a portable support.

98 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The radiocesium migration in undisturbed forest and grassland soils at Fukushima contaminated area has been shown to be faster as compared to the Chernobyl 30-km zone during the first three years after the accidents.

90 citations