Other affiliations: University of Cambridge, University of Glasgow, Tsinghua University ...read more
Bio: Yue Feng is an academic researcher from Beijing University of Chemical Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cellulase & Furfural. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 76 publications receiving 1221 citations. Previous affiliations of Yue Feng include University of Cambridge & University of Glasgow.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Individuals with ASD have significant differences in CV, but these may be underpinned by (separable) variations in its 2 components, CT and SA.
Abstract: Context Neuroimaging studies of brain anatomy in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have mostly been based on measures of cortical volume (CV). However, CV is a product of 2 distinct parameters, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), that in turn have distinct genetic and developmental origins. Objective To investigate regional differences in CV, SA, and CT as well as their relationship in a large and well-characterized sample of men with ASD and matched controls. Design Multicenter case-control design using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Setting Medical Research Council UK Autism Imaging Multicentre Study. Participants A total of 168 men, 84 diagnosed as having ASD and 84 controls who did not differ significantly in mean (SD) age (26  years vs 28  years, respectively) or full-scale IQ (110  vs 114 , respectively). Main Outcome Measures Between-group differences in CV, SA, and CT investigated using a spatially unbiased vertex-based approach; the degree of spatial overlap between the differences in CT and SA; and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV. Results Individuals with ASD differed from controls in all 3 parameters. These mainly consisted of significantly increased CT within frontal lobe regions and reduced SA in the orbitofrontal cortex and posterior cingulum. These differences in CT and SA were paralleled by commensurate differences in CV. The spatially distributed patterns for CT and SA were largely nonoverlapping and shared only about 3% of all significantly different locations on the cerebral surface. Conclusions Individuals with ASD have significant differences in CV, but these may be underpinned by (separable) variations in its 2 components, CT and SA. This is of importance because both measures result from distinct developmental pathways that are likely modulated by different neurobiological mechanisms. This finding may provide novel targets for future studies into the etiology of the condition and a new way to fractionate the disorder.
TL;DR: This study confirms that atypical cortico-cortical “connectivity” in ASD is not restricted to the development of white-matter connections but may also affect the intrinsic gray-matter architecture (and connectivity) within the cortical sheet, and forms part of the core neural substrates underlying autistic symptoms.
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmen- tal conditions that are accompanied by atypical brain connectivity. So far, in vivo evidence for atypical structural brain connectivity in ASD has mainly been based on neuroimaging studies of cortical white matter. However, genetic studies suggest that abnormal connectivity in ASD may also affect neural connections within the cortical gray matter. Such intrinsic gray-matter connections are inherently more difficult to describe in vivo but may be inferred from a variety of surface-based geometric features that can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we present a neuroimaging study that examines the intrinsic cortico-cortical con- nectivity of the brain in ASD using measures of "cortical separation distances" to assess the global and local intrinsic "wiring costs" of the cortex (i.e., estimated length of horizontal connections required to wire the cortex within the cortical sheet). In a sample of 68 adults with ASD and matched controls, we observed significantly reduced intrinsic wiring costs of cortex in ASD, both globally and locally. Differences in global and local wiring cost were predominantly ob- served in fronto-temporal regions and also significantly predicted the severity of social and repetitive symptoms (respectively). Our study confirms that atypical cortico-cortical "connectivity" in ASD is not restricted to the development of white-matter connections but may also affect the intrinsic gray-matter architecture (and connec- tivity) within the cortical sheet. Thus, the atypical connectivity of the brain in ASD is complex, affecting both gray and white matter, and forms part of the core neural substrates underlying autistic symptoms.
TL;DR: The crystal structures of Ndi1 in its substrate-free, NADH-, ubiquin one- and NADH–ubiquinone-bound states are solved and it is proposed that UQI interacts with FAD to act as an intermediate for electron transfer, and that NADH transfers electrons through this FAD–UQI complex to UQII.
Abstract: The single-component type-II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2s) serve as alternatives to the multisubunit respiratory complex I (type-I NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-1), also called NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase; EC 18.104.22.168) in catalysing electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The yeast NDH-2 (Ndi1) oxidizes NADH on the matrix side and reduces ubiquinone to maintain mitochondrial NADH/NAD(+) homeostasis. Ndi1 is a potential therapeutic agent for human diseases caused by complex I defects, particularly Parkinson's disease, because its expression restores the mitochondrial activity in animals with complex I deficiency. NDH-2s in pathogenic microorganisms are viable targets for new antibiotics. Here we solve the crystal structures of Ndi1 in its substrate-free, NADH-, ubiquinone- and NADH-ubiquinone-bound states, to help understand the catalytic mechanism of NDH-2s. We find that Ndi1 homodimerization through its carboxy-terminal domain is critical for its catalytic activity and membrane targeting. The structures reveal two ubiquinone-binding sites (UQ(I) and UQ(II)) in Ndi1. NADH and UQ(I) can bind to Ndi1 simultaneously to form a substrate-protein complex. We propose that UQ(I) interacts with FAD to act as an intermediate for electron transfer, and that NADH transfers electrons through this FAD-UQ(I) complex to UQ(II). Together our data reveal the regulatory and catalytic mechanisms of Ndi1 and may facilitate the development or targeting of NDH-2s for potential therapeutic applications.
TL;DR: A fuzzy logic approach to integrate hybrid features for detecting shot boundaries inside general videos by using publicly available test data set from Carleton University and demonstrating that the proposed algorithm outperforms the representative existing algorithms in terms of the precision and recall rates.
Abstract: Video temporal segmentation is normally the first and important step for content-based video applications. Many features including the pixel difference, colour histogram, motion, and edge information etc. have been widely used and reported in the literature to detect shot cuts inside videos. Although existing research on shot cut detection is active and extensive, it still remains a challenge to achieve accurate detection of all types of shot boundaries with one single algorithm. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy logic approach to integrate hybrid features for detecting shot boundaries inside general videos. The fuzzy logic approach contains two processing modes, where one is dedicated to detection of abrupt shot cuts including those short dissolved shots, and the other for detection of gradual shot cuts. These two modes are unified by a mode-selector to decide which mode the scheme should work on in order to achieve the best possible detection performances. By using the publicly available test data set from Carleton University, extensive experiments were carried out and the test results illustrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the representative existing algorithms in terms of the precision and recall rates.
TL;DR: Recent advances in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray free electron laser, and other techniques have revealed unprecedented structural and catalytic details concerning the two photosystem supercomplexes, with an emphasis on PSII-LHCII.
Abstract: Photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy to sustain all life on earth by providing oxygen and food, and controlling the atmospheric carbon dioxide. During this process, the water-splitting and oxygen-evolving reaction is catalyzed by photosystem II (PSII), while photosystem I (PSI) generates the reducing power for the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Together with their peripheral light-harvesting complexes (LHCs), photosystems function as multisubunit supercomplexes located in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. Recent advances in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM), X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) and other techniques have revealed unprecedented structural and catalytic details concerning the two supercomplexes. Several high-resolution structures of the complexes from plants were solved, and serial time-resolved crystallography and "radiation-damage-free" femtosecond XFEL also provided important insights into the mechanism of water oxidation. Here, we review these exciting advances in the studies of the photosystem supercomplexes with an emphasis on PSII-LHCII, propose presently unresolved problems in this field, and suggest potential tendencies for future studies.
01 Jun 1959
TL;DR: Computer and Robot Vision Vol.
Abstract: Computer and Robot Vision Vol. 1, by R.M. Haralick and Linda G. Shapiro, Addison-Wesley, 1992, ISBN 0-201-10887-1.
TL;DR: Structural and functional analysis has identified four distinct classes of surface proteins, of which microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) are the largest class, and targeting them with vaccines could combat S. aureus infections.
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen and persistently colonizes about 20% of the human population. Its surface is 'decorated' with proteins that are covalently anchored to the cell wall peptidoglycan. Structural and functional analysis has identified four distinct classes of surface proteins, of which microbial surface component recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) are the largest class. These surface proteins have numerous functions, including adhesion to and invasion of host cells and tissues, evasion of immune responses and biofilm formation. Thus, cell wall-anchored proteins are essential virulence factors for the survival of S. aureus in the commensal state and during invasive infections, and targeting them with vaccines could combat S. aureus infections.
TL;DR: It is concluded that molecular typing of coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood cultures does not correlate with clinical criteria for true bacteremia, suggesting either that true bactseremias are frequently the result of multiple strains or that the commonly used clinical criteria are not accurate for distinguishing contamination from true b acteremia.
Abstract: of antibiotics, whether there was an explicit note in the medical chart in which the physician diagnosed a true bacteremia, and the Centers for Disease Control surveillance criteria for primary bloodstream infection. Agreement between same-strain bacteremia and each definition was examined, based on the assumption that most true infections should be the result of a single strain. The study sample consisted of 42 patients and 106 isolates. Nineteen of the 42 bacteremias (45%) were the same strain. Classification of bacteremias as same-strain correlated poorly with all three clinical assessments (range of percentage agreement, 50%-57%; range of kappa statistic, 0.01-0.15). There were both false-positive and false-negative errors. Patients with three or more positive blood cultures were more likely to have same-strain bacteremia than those with only two positive cultures (11/15 [73%] vs 8/27 [30%], P=.006). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was more discriminating than AP PCR (percentage agreement, 83%; kappa, 0.67). The authors concluded that molecular typing correlated poorly with clinical criteria for true bacteremia, suggesting either that true bacteremias are frequently the result of multiple strains or that the commonly used clinical criteria are not accurate for distinguishing contamination from true bacteremia. Vancomycin treatment of clinically defined coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia may frequently be unnecessary. FROM: Seo SK, Venkataraman L, DeGirolami PC, Samore MH. Molecular typing of coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood cultures does not correlate with clinical criteria for true bacteremia. Am J Med 2000;109:697-704.
TL;DR: A concordance is identified in terms of integrity of an anterior insula/dorsal anterior cingulate-based network, which may relate to executive function deficits observed across diagnoses, which provides an organizing model that emphasizes the importance of shared neural substrates across psychopathology.
Abstract: Importance Psychiatric diagnoses are currently distinguished based on sets of specific symptoms. However, genetic and clinical analyses find similarities across a wide variety of diagnoses, suggesting that a common neurobiological substrate may exist across mental illness. Objective To conduct a meta-analysis of structural neuroimaging studies across multiple psychiatric diagnoses, followed by parallel analyses of 3 large-scale healthy participant data sets to help interpret structural findings in the meta-analysis. Data Sources PubMed was searched to identify voxel-based morphometry studies through July 2012 comparing psychiatric patients to healthy control individuals for the meta-analysis. The 3 parallel healthy participant data sets included resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, a database of activation foci across thousands of neuroimaging experiments, and a data set with structural imaging and cognitive task performance data. Data Extraction and Synthesis Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they reported voxel-based morphometry differences between patients with an Axis I diagnosis and control individuals in stereotactic coordinates across the whole brain, did not present predominantly in childhood, and had at least 10 studies contributing to that diagnosis (or across closely related diagnoses). The meta-analysis was conducted on peak voxel coordinates using an activation likelihood estimation approach. Main Outcomes and Measures We tested for areas of common gray matter volume increase or decrease across Axis I diagnoses, as well as areas differing between diagnoses. Follow-up analyses on other healthy participant data sets tested connectivity related to regions arising from the meta-analysis and the relationship of gray matter volume to cognition. Results Based on the voxel-based morphometry meta-analysis of 193 studies comprising 15 892 individuals across 6 diverse diagnostic groups (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety), we found that gray matter loss converged across diagnoses in 3 regions: the dorsal anterior cingulate, right insula, and left insula. By contrast, there were few diagnosis-specific effects, distinguishing only schizophrenia and depression from other diagnoses. In the parallel follow-up analyses of the 3 independent healthy participant data sets, we found that the common gray matter loss regions formed a tightly interconnected network during tasks and at resting and that lower gray matter in this network was associated with poor executive functioning. Conclusions and Revelance We identified a concordance across psychiatric diagnoses in terms of integrity of an anterior insula/dorsal anterior cingulate–based network, which may relate to executive function deficits observed across diagnoses. This concordance provides an organizing model that emphasizes the importance of shared neural substrates across psychopathology, despite likely diverse etiologies, which is currently not an explicit component of psychiatric nosology.