Other affiliations: Cooperative Research Centre, South Australian Research and Development Institute
Bio: Yusuf Genc is an academic researcher from University of Adelaide. The author has contributed to research in topics: Hordeum vulgare & Population. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 33 publications receiving 1902 citations. Previous affiliations of Yusuf Genc include Cooperative Research Centre & South Australian Research and Development Institute.
TL;DR: It is suggested that Na(+) exclusion and tissue tolerance varied independently, and there was no significant relationship between Na(+ exclusion and ST in bread wheat.
Abstract: Wheat is the most important crop grown on many of world’s saline and sodic soils, and breeding for improved salinity tolerance (ST) is the only feasible way of improving yield and yield stability under these conditions. There are a number of possible mechanisms by which cereals can tolerate high levels of salinity, but these can be considered in terms of Na + exclusion and tissue tolerance. Na + exclusion has been the focus of much of the recent work in wheat, but with relatively little progress to date in developing highyielding, salt-tolerant genotypes. Using a diverse collection of bread wheat germplasm, the present study was conducted to assess the value of tissue Na + concentration as a criterion for ST, and to determine whether ST differs with growth stage. Two experiments were conducted, the first with 38 genotypes and the second with 21 genotypes. A wide range of Na + concentrations within the roots and shoots as well as in ST were observed in both experiments. However, maintenance of growth and yield when grown with 100 mM NaCl was not correlated with the ability of a genotype to exclude Na + either from an individual leaf blade or from the whole shoot. The K + :N a + ratio also showed a wide range among the genotypes, but it did not explain the variation in ST among the genotypes. The results suggested that Na + exclusion and tissue tolerance varied independently, and there was no significant relationship between Na + exclusion and ST in bread wheat. Consequently, similar levels of ST may be achieved through different combinations of exclusion and tissue tolerance. Breeding for improved ST in bread wheat needs to select for traits related to both exclusion and tissue tolerance.
TL;DR: Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production and the Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production.
Abstract: Selenium (Se) is essential for humans and animals but is not considered to be essential for higher plants. Although researchers have found increases in vegetative growth due to fertiliser Se, there has been no definitive evidence to date of increased reproductive capacity, in terms of seed production and seed viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate seed production and growth responses to a low dose of Se (as sodium selenite, added to solution culture) compared to very low-Se controls in fast-cycling Brassica rapa L. Although there was no change in total biomass, Se treatment was associated with a 43% increase in seed production. The Se-treated Brassica plants had higher total respiratory activity in leaves and flowers, which may have contributed to higher seed production. This study provides additional evidence for a beneficial role for Se in higher plants.
TL;DR: A strategy for improving the ability of cereals to adapt to low P environments is proposed that involves alteration in partitioning of carbohydrates into organic acids and amino acids to enable more efficient utilization of carbon in P-deficient plants.
Abstract: Plants modify metabolic processes for adaptation to low phosphate (P) conditions. Whilst transcriptomic analyses show that P deficiency changes hundreds of genes related to various metabolic processes, there is limited information available for global metabolite changes of P-deficient plants, especially for cereals. As changes in metabolites are the ultimate 'readout' of changes in gene expression, we profiled polar metabolites from both shoots and roots of P-deficient barley (Hordeum vulgare) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that mildly P-deficient plants accumulated di- and trisaccharides (sucrose, maltose, raffinose and 6-kestose), especially in shoots. Severe P deficiency increased the levels of metabolites related to ammonium metabolism in addition to di- and trisaccharides, but reduced the levels of phosphorylated intermediates (glucose-6-P, fructose-6-P, inositol-1-P and glycerol-3-P) and organic acids (alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate and malate). The results revealed that P-deficient plants modify carbohydrate metabolism initially to reduce P consumption, and salvage P from small P-containing metabolites when P deficiency is severe, which consequently reduced levels of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The extent of the effect of severe P deficiency on ammonium metabolism was also revealed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) quantitative analysis of free amino acids. A sharp increase in the concentrations of glutamine and asparagine was observed in both shoots and roots of severely P-deficient plants. Based on these data, a strategy for improving the ability of cereals to adapt to low P environments is proposed that involves alteration in partitioning of carbohydrates into organic acids and amino acids to enable more efficient utilization of carbon in P-deficient plants.
TL;DR: A doubled-haploid bread wheat population was grown in supported hydroponics to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with salinity tolerance traits commonly reported in the literature, understand the relationships amongst these traits, and determine their genetic value for marker-assisted selection.
Abstract: Worldwide, dryland salinity is a major limitation to crop production. Breeding for salinity tolerance could be an effective way of improving yield and yield stability on saline-sodic soils of dryland agriculture. However, this requires a good understanding of inheritance of this quantitative trait. In the present study, a doubled-haploid bread wheat population (Berkut/Krichauff) was grown in supported hydroponics to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with salinity tolerance traits commonly reported in the literature (leaf symptoms, tiller number, seedling biomass, chlorophyll content, and shoot Na+ and K+ concentrations), understand the relationships amongst these traits, and determine their genetic value for marker-assisted selection. There was considerable segregation within the population for all traits measured. With a genetic map of 527 SSR-, DArT- and gene-based markers, a total of 40 QTL were detected for all seven traits. For the first time in a cereal species, a QTL interval for Na+ exclusion (wPt-3114-wmc170) was associated with an increase (10%) in seedling biomass. Of the five QTL identified for Na+ exclusion, two were co-located with seedling biomass (2A and 6A). The 2A QTL appears to coincide with the previously reported Na+ exclusion locus in durum wheat that hosts one active HKT1;4 (Nax1) and one inactive HKT1;4 gene. Using these sequences as template for primer design enabled mapping of at least three HKT1;4 genes onto chromosome 2AL in bread wheat, suggesting that bread wheat carries more HKT1;4 gene family members than durum wheat. However, the combined effects of all Na+ exclusion loci only accounted for 18% of the variation in seedling biomass under salinity stress indicating that there were other mechanisms of salinity tolerance operative at the seedling stage in this population. Na+ and K+ accumulation appear under separate genetic control. The molecular markers wmc170 (2A) and cfd080 (6A) are expected to facilitate breeding for salinity tolerance in bread wheat, the latter being associated with seedling vigour.
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of variation in grain yield on grain Zn concentration was analyzed using a series of field and glasshouse experiments and an approach that will overcome the yield dilution effect was described.
Abstract: Increasing the grain zinc (Zn) concentration of staple food crops will help alleviate chronic Zn deficiency in many areas of the world. Significant variation in grain Zn concentration is often reported among collections of cereals, but frequently there is a concomitant variation in grain yield. In such cases grain Zn concentration and grain yield are often inversely related. Without considering the influence of the variation in grain yield on Zn concentration, the differences in grain Zn concentration may simply represent a yield dilution effect. Data from a series of field and glasshouse experiments was used to illustrate this effect and to describe an approach that will overcome the yield dilution effect. In experiments with a wide range of bread wheat, synthetic hexaploids and accessions of durum wheat, variation in grain yield among the genotypes accounted for 30–57% of the variation in grain Zn concentration. Variation in kernel weight also occurred, but was poorly correlated with grain Zn concentration. To account for the influence of variation in grain yield on grain Zn concentration grain Zn yield was plotted against grain yield. By defining the 95% confidence belt for the regression genotypes that have inherently low or high grain Zn concentrations at a given yield level can be identified. This method is illustrated using two data sets, one consisting of bread wheat and one comprising a collection of synthetic hexaploids.
TL;DR: The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cellular, organ, and whole-plant level and the role of the HKT gene family in Na(+) exclusion from leaves is increasing.
Abstract: The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cellular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits growth of young leaves, and a slower, ionic phase that accelerates senescence of mature leaves. Plant adaptations to salinity are of three distinct types: osmotic stress tolerance, Na + or Cl − exclusion, and the tolerance of tissue to accumulated Na + or Cl − . Our understanding of the role of the HKT gene family in Na + exclusion from leaves is increasing, as is the understanding of the molecular bases for many other transport processes at the cellular level. However, we have a limited molecular understanding of the overall control of Na + accumulation and of osmotic stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. Molecular genetics and functional genomics provide a new opportunity to synthesize molecular and physiological knowledge to improve the salinity tolerance of plants relevant to food production and environmental sustainability.
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors defined the sources of heavy metals and metalloids in Soils and derived methods for the determination of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in soil.
Abstract: Preface.- Contributors.- List of Abbreviations.- Section 1: Basic Principles: Introduction.-Sources of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Chemistry of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils.- Effects of Heavy Metals and Metalloids on Soil Organisms.- Soil-Plant Relationships of Heavy Metals and Metalloids.- Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Micronutrients for Plants and Animals.-Critical Loads of Heavy Metals for Soils.- Section 2: Key Heavy Metals And Metalloids: Arsenic.- Cadmium.- Chromium and Nickel.- Cobalt and Manganese.- Copper.-Lead.- Mercury.- Selenium.- Zinc.- Section 3: Other Heavy Metals And Metalloids Of Potential Environmental Significance: Antimony.- Barium.- Gold.- Molybdenum.- Silver.- Thallium.- Tin.- Tungsten.- Uranium.- Vanadium.- Glossary of Specialized Terms.- Index.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review aspects of soil science, plant physiology and genetics underpinning crop bio-fortification strategies, as well as agronomic and genetic approaches currently taken to biofortify food crops with the mineral elements most commonly lacking in human diets: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I) and selenium (Se).
Abstract: Summary The diets of over two-thirds of the world's population lack one or more essential mineral elements. This can be remedied through dietary diversification, mineral supplementation, food fortification, or increasing the concentrations and/or bioavailability of mineral elements in produce (biofortification). This article reviews aspects of soil science, plant physiology and genetics underpinning crop biofortification strategies, as well as agronomic and genetic approaches currently taken to biofortify food crops with the mineral elements most commonly lacking in human diets: iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I) and selenium (Se). Two complementary approaches have been successfully adopted to increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in food crops. First, agronomic approaches optimizing the application of mineral fertilizers and/or improving the solubilization and mobilization of mineral elements in the soil have been implemented. Secondly, crops have been developed with: increased abilities to acquire mineral elements and accumulate them in edible tissues; increased concentrations of ‘promoter’ substances, such as ascorbate, β-carotene and cysteine-rich polypeptides which stimulate the absorption of essential mineral elements by the gut; and reduced concentrations of ‘antinutrients’, such as oxalate, polyphenolics or phytate, which interfere with their absorption. These approaches are addressing mineral malnutrition in humans globally.
TL;DR: Although technical challenges limit the amount of bioavailable iron compounds that can be used in food fortification, studies show that iron fortification can be an effective strategy against nutritional iron deficiency.