Bio: Zhang Zhang is an academic researcher from Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. The author has contributed to research in topics: Relay & Cooperative diversity. The author has an hindex of 7, co-authored 9 publications receiving 381 citations. Previous affiliations of Zhang Zhang include Huawei & Alcatel-Lucent.
TL;DR: The analysis shows that the estimation performance of the proposed approach improves when the large-scale/massive MIMO systems are employed and the approximate Cramér-Rao bound ofThe proposed estimator for the 2-D localization is derived.
Abstract: In this paper, an approach of estimating signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) localization of incoherently distributed (ID) sources in large-scale/massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The traditional ESPRIT-based methods are valid only for one-dimensional (1-D) localization of the ID sources. By contrast, in the proposed approach the signal subspace is constructed for estimating the nominal azimuth and elevation direction-of-arrivals and the angular spreads. The proposed estimator enjoys closed-form expressions and hence it bypasses the searching over the entire feasible field. Therefore, it imposes significantly lower computational complexity than the conventional 2-D estimation approaches. Our analysis shows that the estimation performance of the proposed approach improves when the large-scale/massive MIMO systems are employed. The approximate Cramer-Rao bound of the proposed estimator for the 2-D localization is also derived. Numerical results demonstrate that albeit the proposed estimation method is comparable with the traditional 2-D estimators in terms of performance, it benefits from a remarkably lower computational complexity.
TL;DR: This paper evaluates the relevant PHY and MAC techniques for their ability to improve the reliability and reduce the latency and identifies that enabling long-term evolution to coexist in the unlicensed spectrum is also a potential enabler of URLLC in theUnlicensed band.
Abstract: Future 5th generation networks are expected to enable three key services—enhanced mobile broadband, massive machine type communications and ultra-reliable and low latency communications (URLLC). As per the 3rd generation partnership project URLLC requirements, it is expected that the reliability of one transmission of a 32 byte packet will be at least 99.999% and the latency will be at most 1 ms. This unprecedented level of reliability and latency will yield various new applications, such as smart grids, industrial automation and intelligent transport systems. In this survey we present potential future URLLC applications, and summarize the corresponding reliability and latency requirements. We provide a comprehensive discussion on physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layer techniques that enable URLLC, addressing both licensed and unlicensed bands. This paper evaluates the relevant PHY and MAC techniques for their ability to improve the reliability and reduce the latency. We identify that enabling long-term evolution to coexist in the unlicensed spectrum is also a potential enabler of URLLC in the unlicensed band, and provide numerical evaluations. Lastly, this paper discusses the potential future research directions and challenges in achieving the URLLC requirements.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated, via simulations, that the periods without access to the unlicensed band can be substantially reduced by maintaining channel access processes on multiple unlicensed channels, choosing the channels intelligently, and implementing RTS/CTS.
Abstract: In this article, we aim to address the question of how to exploit the unlicensed spectrum to achieve URLLC. Potential URLLC PHY mechanisms are reviewed and then compared via simulations to demonstrate their potential benefits to URLLC. Although a number of important PHY techniques help with URLLC, the PHY layer exhibits an intrinsic trade-off between latency and reliability, posed by limited and unstable wireless channels. We then explore MAC mechanisms and discuss multi-channel strategies for achieving low-latency LTE unlicensed band access. We demonstrate, via simulations, that the periods without access to the unlicensed band can be substantially reduced by maintaining channel access processes on multiple unlicensed channels, choosing the channels intelligently, and implementing RTS/CTS.
••05 Jun 2011
TL;DR: Analytical results show that conditioned on the same packet error ratio (PER), the retransmission rounds needed for XOR^2-HarQ is strictly less than that of NC-HARQ, and the simulation results consolidate the analysis to show a significant reduction of required retransmissions.
Abstract: In this paper, a novel dual XOR hybrid automatic retransmission request scheme XOR^2-HARQ is proposed for wireless broadcasting. Distinct from the traditional network coding (NC) based HARQ (NC-HARQ), an additional XOR operation is introduced to dynamically combine lost packets from the individual receiver instead of conducting XOR operation only across lost packets from different receivers. Furthermore, based on the linear block code's perspective, we optimize the retransmission strategy to yield optimal diversity gain. Analytical results show that conditioned on the same packet error ratio (PER), the retransmission rounds needed for XOR^2-HARQ is strictly less than that of NC-HARQ, and the simulation results consolidate our analysis to show a significant reduction of required retransmissions.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) of the US-LCRP is superior to that of the existing schemes, where more TSs are allocated for direct transmission in order to jointly exploit CD and MUD.
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the scheduling scheme to combine cooperative diversity (CD) and multiuser diversity (MUD) in multiuser cooperative networks under the time resource allocation (TRA) framework in which the whole transmission is divided into two phases: the broadcast phase and the relay phase. The broadcast phase is for direct transmission whereas the relay phase is for relay transmission. Based on this TRA framework, a user selection based low complexity relay protocol (US-LCRP) is proposed to combine CD and MUD. In each time slot (TS) of the broadcast phase, a “best” user is selected for transmission in order to obtain MUD. In the relay phase, the relays forward the messages of some specific users in a fixed order and then invoke the limited feedback information to achieve CD. We demonstrate that the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) of the US-LCRP is superior to that of the existing schemes, where more TSs are allocated for direct transmission in order to jointly exploit CD and MUD. Our analytical and numerical results show that the US-LCRP constitutes a more efficient resource utilization approach than the existing schemes. Additionally, the US-LCRP can be implemented with low complexity because only the direct links' channel state information (CSI) is estimated during the whole transmission.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a recital on the historic heritages and novel challenges facing massive/large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (LS-MIMO) systems from a detection perspective.
Abstract: The emerging massive/large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (LS-MIMO) systems that rely on very large antenna arrays have become a hot topic of wireless communications. Compared to multi-antenna aided systems being built at the time of this writing, such as the long-term evolution (LTE) based fourth generation (4G) mobile communication system which allows for up to eight antenna elements at the base station (BS), the LS-MIMO system entails an unprecedented number of antennas, say 100 or more, at the BS. The huge leap in the number of BS antennas opens the door to a new research field in communication theory, propagation and electronics, where random matrix theory begins to play a dominant role. Interestingly, LS-MIMOs also constitute a perfect example of one of the key philosophical principles of the Hegelian Dialectics, namely, that “quantitative change leads to qualitative change.” In this treatise, we provide a recital on the historic heritages and novel challenges facing LS-MIMOs from a detection perspective. First, we highlight the fundamentals of MIMO detection, including the nature of co-channel interference (CCI), the generality of the MIMO detection problem, the received signal models of both linear memoryless MIMO channels and dispersive MIMO channels exhibiting memory, as well as the complex-valued versus real-valued MIMO system models. Then, an extensive review of the representative MIMO detection methods conceived during the past 50 years (1965–2015) is presented, and relevant insights as well as lessons are inferred for the sake of designing complexity-scalable MIMO detection algorithms that are potentially applicable to LS-MIMO systems. Furthermore, we divide the LS-MIMO systems into two types, and elaborate on the distinct detection strategies suitable for each of them. The type-I LS-MIMO corresponds to the case where the number of active users is much smaller than the number of BS antennas, which is currently the mainstream definition of LS-MIMO. The type-II LS-MIMO corresponds to the case where the number of active users is comparable to the number of BS antennas. Finally, we discuss the applicability of existing MIMO detection algorithms in LS-MIMO systems, and review some of the recent advances in LS-MIMO detection.
TL;DR: A spatial basis expansion model (SBEM) is built to represent the UL/DL channels with far fewer parameter dimensions, which significantly reduces the training overhead and feedback cost and enhances the spectral efficiency.
Abstract: This paper proposes a unified transmission strategy for multiuser time division duplex (TDD)/frequency division duplex (FDD) massive multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) systems, including uplink (UL)/downlink (DL) channel estimation and user scheduling for data transmission. With the aid of antenna array theory and array signal processing, we build a spatial basis expansion model (SBEM) to represent the UL/DL channels with far fewer parameter dimensions. Hence, both the UL and DL channel estimations of multiusers can be carried out with a small amount of training resource, which significantly reduces the training overhead and feedback cost. Meanwhile, the pilot contamination problem in the UL training is immediately relieved by exploiting the spatial information of users. To enhance the spectral efficiency, we also design a greedy user scheduling scheme during the data transmission period. Compared with existing low-rank models, the newly proposed SBEM offers an alternative for channel acquisition without the need for channel statistics and can be applied to both TDD and FDD systems. Various numerical results are provided to corroborate the proposed studies.
TL;DR: A spatially common sparsity based adaptive channel estimation and feedback scheme for frequency division duplex based massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems, which adapts training overhead and pilot design to reliably estimate and feed back the downlink channel state information (CSI) with significantly reduced overhead.
Abstract: This paper proposes a spatially common sparsity based adaptive channel estimation and feedback scheme for frequency division duplex based massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems, which adapts training overhead and pilot design to reliably estimate and feed back the downlink channel state information (CSI) with significantly reduced overhead. Specifically, a nonorthogonal downlink pilot design is first proposed, which is very different from standard orthogonal pilots. By exploiting the spatially common sparsity of massive MIMO channels, a compressive sensing (CS) based adaptive CSI acquisition scheme is proposed, where the consumed time slot overhead only adaptively depends on the sparsity level of the channels. In addition, a distributed sparsity adaptive matching pursuit algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate the channels of multiple subcarriers. Furthermore, by exploiting the temporal channel correlation, a closed-loop channel tracking scheme is provided, which adaptively designs the nonorthogonal pilot according to the previous channel estimation to achieve an enhanced CSI acquisition. Finally, we generalize the results of the multiple-measurement-vectors case in CS and derive the Cramer–Rao lower bound of the proposed scheme, which enlightens us to design the nonorthogonal pilot signals for the improved performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms its counterparts, and it is capable of approaching the performance bound.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide an up-to-date comprehensive survey of the IEEE TSN and IETF DetNet standards and related research studies and identify the pitfalls and limitations of the existing standards and research studies.
Abstract: Many network applications, eg, industrial control, demand ultra-low latency (ULL) However, traditional packet networks can only reduce the end-to-end latencies to the order of tens of milliseconds The IEEE 8021 time sensitive networking (TSN) standard and related research studies have sought to provide link layer support for ULL networking, while the emerging IETF deterministic networking (DetNet) standards seek to provide the complementary network layer ULL support This paper provides an up-to-date comprehensive survey of the IEEE TSN and IETF DetNet standards and the related research studies The survey of these standards and research studies is organized according to the main categories of flow concept, flow synchronization, flow management, flow control, and flow integrity ULL networking mechanisms play a critical role in the emerging fifth generation (5G) network access chain from wireless devices via access, backhaul, and core networks We survey the studies that specifically target the support of ULL in 5G networks, with the main categories of fronthaul, backhaul, and network management Throughout, we identify the pitfalls and limitations of the existing standards and research studies This survey can thus serve as a basis for the development of standards enhancements and future ULL research studies that address the identified pitfalls and limitations
TL;DR: This work proposes a direct localization approach in which the position of a user is localized by jointly processing the observations obtained at distributed massive MIMO base stations, and leads to improved performance results compared to previous existing methods.
Abstract: Large-scale MIMO systems are well known for their advantages in communications, but they also have the potential for providing very accurate localization, thanks to their high angular resolution. A difficult problem arising indoors and outdoors is localizing users over multipath channels. Localization based on angle of arrival (AOA) generally involves a two-step procedure, where signals are first processed to obtain a user's AOA at different base stations, followed by triangulation to determine the user's position. In the presence of multipath, the performance of these methods is greatly degraded due to the inability to correctly detect and/or estimate the AOA of the line-of-sight (LOS) paths. To counter the limitations of this two-step procedure which is inherently suboptimal, we propose a direct localization approach in which the position of a user is localized by jointly processing the observations obtained at distributed massive MIMO base stations. Our approach is based on a novel compressed sensing framework that exploits channel properties to distinguish LOS from non-LOS signal paths, and leads to improved performance results compared to previous existing methods.