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Institution

Aaniiih Nakoda College

EducationHarlem, Montana, United States
About: Aaniiih Nakoda College is a education organization based out in Harlem, Montana, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: No-till farming & Dewlap. The organization has 2 authors who have published 3 publications receiving 34 citations. The organization is also known as: Fort Belknap College & ANC.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overall, this study shows that in addition to indicating condition and performance, dewlap size could also honestly indicate male boldness in Anolis lizards.
Abstract: Male sexually selected signals can indicate competitive ability by honestly signaling fitness-relevant traits such as condition or performance. However, behavior can also influence contest outcomes; in particular, boldness often predicts dominance rank and mating success. Here, we sought to determine whether male ornament size is associated with consistent individual differences in boldness in water anoles Anolis aquaticus. We measured the relative size of the dewlap, a flap of skin under the chin that is a sexually selected ornament in Anolis lizards, and tested for associations with responses to a novel and potentially risky environment: time to emerge from a refuge into an arena and number of head scans post-emergence. We found that individuals consistently differed in both time to emerge and head scanning (i.e., individual responses were repeatable), and that dewlap size was negatively related to number of head scans. This suggests that ornament size could indicate male boldness if scanning represents antipredator vigilance. We found that males that had larger relative dewlaps were also in better body condition, but boldness (i.e., head scanning) was not related to condition. Lastly, we found consistent differences in behavior between trials, showing that anoles were becoming habituated or sensitized to the testing arena. Overall, our study shows that in addition to indicating condition and performance, dewlap size could also honestly indicate male boldness in Anolis lizards.

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Apr 2016
TL;DR: After three years, cover crops do not appear to alter soil WEOC quantity and type, and the parallel factor analysis model found humic and fulvic acids to be the dominant fractions of WEOC in all soils tested.
Abstract: Long-term row crop agricultural production has dramatically reduced the pool of soil organic carbon. The implementation of cover crops in Midwestern agroecosystems is primarily to reduce losses of nitrogenous fertilizers, but has also been shown to restore soil carbon stocks over time. If labile carbon within agricultural soils could be increased, it could improve soil health, and if mobilized into subsurface drainage, it may positively impact watershed biogeochemistry. We tested for potential differences in water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) at two different soil profiles (0–5 cm and 5–20 cm) between plots planted with cereal rye/daikon radish (cover crop), corn, and zero control (no vegetation) within the Illinois State University Research and Teaching Farm. We also tested for potential differences in denitrification within the upper soil profile throughout the growing year. We modeled excitation–emission matrices from soil cores through parallel factor analysis. We found no difference in WEOC concentrations between each crop treatment (P = 0.2850), but concentrations of WEOC were significantly lower in the 5–20 cm profile than that in the upper (0–5 cm) profile (P = 0.0033). There was a significant increase in WEOC after each treatment in samples after cover crop termination. The parallel factor analysis model found humic and fulvic acids to be the dominant fractions of WEOC in all soils tested. Humic and fulvic acids accounted for ~70% and 30% of model variation. Denitrification rates did not differ across treatments (P = 0.3520), which is likely attributed to soil WEOC being in limiting quantities and in primarily recalcitrant fractions. After three years, cover crops do not appear to alter soil WEOC quantity and type. Restoring the availability of carbon within agricultural soils will not be a short-term fix, and fields will likely be a net carbon sink, contributing minimal labile carbon to receiving waterways.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wetland sediments provide a limiting pool of labile DOC to maintain prolonged NO3–N removal and carbon limitation became more evident at elevated NO3-N concentrations (20 mg L−1).
Abstract: Nutrient stoichiometry within a wetland is affected by the surrounding land use, and may play a significant role in the removal of nitrate (NO3–N). Tile-drained, agricultural watersheds experience high seasonal inputs of NO3–N, but low phosphorus (PO4–P) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loads relative to surface water dominated systems. This difference may present stoichiometric conditions that limit denitrification within receiving waterways. We investigated how C:N:P ratios affected denitrification rates of sediments from tile-drained mitigation wetlands incubated for: 0, 5, 10, and 20 days. We then tested whether denitrification rates of sediments from surface-water and tile-drained wetlands responded differently to C:N ratios of 2:1 versus 4:1. Ratios of C:N:P (P < 0.05) and incubation length (P < 0.05) had a significant effect on denitrification in tile-drained wetland sediments. Carbon limitation of denitrification became evident at elevated NO3–N concentrations (20 mg L−1). Denitrification measured from tile water and surface water wetland sediments increased significantly (P < 0.05) at the 2:1 and 4:1 C:N treatments. The results from both experiments suggest wetland sediments provide a limiting pool of labile DOC to maintain prolonged NO3–N removal. Also, DOC limitation became more evident at elevated NO3–N concentrations (20 mg L−1). Irrespective of NO3–N concentrations, P did not limit denitrification rates. In addition to wetting period, residence time, and maintenance of anaerobic conditions, the availability of labile DOC is playing an important limiting role in sediment denitrification within mitigation wetlands.

13 citations


Authors

Showing all 2 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Brian D. Grebliunas3335
Kylee R Azure1110
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
20191
20162