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Aarhus University

EducationAarhus, Denmark
About: Aarhus University is a(n) education organization based out in Aarhus, Denmark. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Cohort study. The organization has 30034 authors who have published 93532 publication(s) receiving 3421501 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Aarhus Universitet & AU.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A natural generalization of the ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic) process introduced in Engle (1982) to allow for past conditional variances in the current conditional variance equation is proposed. Stationarity conditions and autocorrelation structure for this new class of parametric models are derived. Maximum likelihood estimation and testing are also considered. Finally an empirical example relating to the uncertainty of the inflation rate is presented.

16,132 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Summary Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57·6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40·8–75·9 million [7·2%, 6·0–8·3]), 45·1 million (29·0–62·8 million [5·6%, 4·0–7·2]), 36·3 million (25·3–50·9 million [4·5%, 3·8–5·3]), 34·7 million (23·0–49·6 million [4·3%, 3·5–5·2]), and 34·1 million (23·5–46·0 million [4·2%, 3·2–5·3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2·7% (95% UI 2·3–3·1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10·4% (95% UI 9·0–11·8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862–11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018–19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-to-date information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health.

8,768 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Information on MI rates can provide useful information regarding the burden of CAD within and across populations, especially if standardized data are collected in a manner that …
Abstract: ACCF : American College of Cardiology Foundation ACS : acute coronary syndrome AHA : American Heart Association CAD : coronary artery disease CABG : coronary artery bypass grafting CKMB : creatine kinase MB isoform cTn : cardiac troponin CT : computed tomography CV : coefficient of variation ECG : electrocardiogram ESC : European Society of Cardiology FDG : fluorodeoxyglucose h : hour(s) HF : heart failure LBBB : left bundle branch block LV : left ventricle LVH : left ventricular hypertrophy MI : myocardial infarction mIBG : meta-iodo-benzylguanidine min : minute(s) MONICA : Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) MPS : myocardial perfusion scintigraphy MRI : magnetic resonance imaging mV : millivolt(s) ng/L : nanogram(s) per litre Non-Q MI : non-Q wave myocardial infarction NSTEMI : non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction PCI : percutaneous coronary intervention PET : positron emission tomography pg/mL : pictogram(s) per millilitre Q wave MI : Q wave myocardial infarction RBBB : right bundle branch block sec : second(s) SPECT : single photon emission computed tomography STEMI : ST elevation myocardial infarction ST–T : ST-segment –T wave URL : upper reference limit WHF : World Heart Federation WHO : World Health Organization Myocardial infarction (MI) can be recognised by clinical features, including electrocardiographic (ECG) findings, elevated values of biochemical markers (biomarkers) of myocardial necrosis, and by imaging, or may be defined by pathology. It is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. MI may be the first manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) or it may occur, repeatedly, in patients with established disease. Information on MI rates can provide useful information regarding the burden of CAD within and across populations, especially if standardized data are collected in a manner that …

6,532 citations

14 Mar 1996
Abstract: List of Boxes, Figures, and Tables Preface to the Third Edition Acknowledgments About the Author Introduction 1. Introduction to Interview Research Conversation as Research Three Interview Sequences Interview Research in History and in the Social Sciences The Interview Society Methodological and Ethical Issues in Research Interviewing Overview of the Book Interviewing as a Craft Interviewing as a Social Production of Knowledge Interviewing as a Social Practice Part I: Conceptualizing the Research Interview Part II: Seven Stages of Research Interviewing Concluding Perspectives PART I. Conceptualizing the Research Interview 2. Characterizing Qualitative Research Interviews A Qualitative Research Interview on Learning Phenomenology and the Mode of Understanding in a Qualitative Research Interview Power Asymmetry in Qualitative Research Interviews Philosophical Dialogues, Therapeutic Conversations, and Research Interviews Therapeutic Interviews and Research Interviews Qualitative Interviews as Research Instruments and Social Practices 3. Epistemological Issues of Interviewing The Interviewer as a Miner or as a Traveler Interviews in a Postmodern Age Seven Features of Interview Knowledge Knowledge and Interviews in a Positivist Conception A Rehabilitation of Classical Positivism? Methodological Positivism Qualitative Interviewing Between Method and Craft Research Interviewing: Method or Personal Skills The Craft of Research Interviewing Learning the Craft of Research Interviewing 4. Ethical Issues of Interviewing Interviewing as a Moral Inquiry Ethical Issues Throughout an Interview Inquiry Ethical Positions: Rules and Procedures or Personal Virtues? Ethical Guidelines Informed Consent Confidentiality Consequences The Role of the Researcher Learning Ethical Research Behavior 5. The Qualitative Research Interview as Context Interviewers and Interviewees The Interviewer The Interviewee Bodies and Nonhumans Nonhumans and Surroundings PART II. Seven Stages of an Interview Investigation 6. Thematizing and Designing an Interview Study Seven Stages of an Interview Inquiry Thematizing an Interview Study Designing an Interview Study Mixed Methods 7. Conducting an Interview A Class Interview About Grades Setting the Interview Stage Scripting the Interview Interviewer Questions The Art of Second Questions 8. Interview Variations Interview Subjects Interviewing Subjects Across Cultures Interviews With Children Interviews With Elites Interview Forms Computer-Assisted Interviews Focus Group Interviews Factual Interviews Conceptual Interviews Narrative Interviews Discursive Interviews Confrontational Interviews 9. Interview Quality Hamlet's Interview Interview Quality The Interview Subject Interviewer Qualifications Standard Objections to the Quality of Interview Research Leading Questions 10. Transcribing Interviews Oral and Written Language Recording Interviews Transcribing Interviews Transcription Reliability, Validity, and Ethics 11. Preparing for Interview Analysis The 1,000-Page Question A Method of Analyzing the Question? Steps and Modes of Interview Analysis Computer Tools for Interview Analysis Coding 12. Interview Analyses Focusing on Meaning Meaning Condensation Meaning Interpretation The Issue of Multiple Interpretations Hermeneutical Interpretation of Meaning The Primacy of the Question in Interpretation Analytic Questions Posed to an Interview Text The Quest for the "Real Meaning" 13. Interview Analyses Focusing on Language Linguistic Analysis Conversation Analysis Narrative Analysis Discourse Analysis Deconstruction 14. Eclectic and Theoretical Analyses of Interviews Interview Analysis as Bricolage Interview Analysis as Theoretical Reading 15. The Social Construction of Validity Objectivity of Interview Knowledge Reliability and Validity of Interview Knowledge Validity as Quality of Craftsmanship Communicative Validity Pragmatic Validity Generalizing From Interview Studies 16. Reporting Interview Knowledge Contrasting Audiences for Interview Reports Boring Interview Reports Ethics of Reporting Investigating With the Final Report in Mind Standard Reports and Ways of Enhancing Them Method Results Enriching Interview Reports Journalistic Interviews Dialogues Therapeutic Case Histories Narratives Metaphors Visualizing Collage Publishing Qualitative Research 17. Conversations about Interviews Critiques of the Quality of Interview Knowledge Developing the Craft of Research Interviewing An Epistemology of Interview Knowledge The Object Determines the Method The Social Science Dogma of Quantification Research Interviewing as Social Practice Research Interviewing in a Social Context Interview Ethics in a Social Context Appendix: Learning Tasks Glossary References Index

6,476 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A strategy of intensive glucose control, involving gliclazide (modified release) and other drugs as required, that lowered the glycated hemoglobin value to 6.5% yielded a 10% relative reduction in the combined outcome of major macrovascular and microvascular events, primarily as a consequence of a 21%relative reduction in nephropathy.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, the effects of intensive glucose control on vascular outcomes remain uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes to undergo either standard glucose control or intensive glucose control, defined as the use of gliclazide (modified release) plus other drugs as required to achieve a glycated hemoglobin value of 6.5% or less. Primary end points were composites of major macrovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) and major microvascular events (new or worsening nephropathy or retinopathy), assessed both jointly and separately. RESULTS: After a median of 5 years of follow-up, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was lower in the intensive-control group (6.5%) than in the standard-control group (7.3%). Intensive control reduced the incidence of combined major macrovascular and microvascular events (18.1%, vs. 20.0% with standard control; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 0.98; P=0.01), as well as that of major microvascular events (9.4% vs. 10.9%; hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.97; P=0.01), primarily because of a reduction in the incidence of nephropathy (4.1% vs. 5.2%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.006), with no significant effect on retinopathy (P=0.50). There were no significant effects of the type of glucose control on major macrovascular events (hazard ratio with intensive control, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.06; P=0.32), death from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio with intensive control, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.04; P=0.12), or death from any cause (hazard ratio with intensive control, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.06; P=0.28). Severe hypoglycemia, although uncommon, was more common in the intensive-control group (2.7%, vs. 1.5% in the standard-control group; hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.42 to 2.40; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of intensive glucose control, involving gliclazide (modified release) and other drugs as required, that lowered the glycated hemoglobin value to 6.5% yielded a 10% relative reduction in the combined outcome of major macrovascular and microvascular events, primarily as a consequence of a 21% relative reduction in nephropathy. ( number, NCT00145925.)

6,061 citations


Showing all 30034 results

Solomon H. Snyder2321222200444
Jens K. Nørskov184706146151
Jie Zhang1784857221720
Chris D. Frith173524130472
Simon Baron-Cohen172773118071
Gregory Y.H. Lip1693159171742
Jun Wang1661093141621
Peter Carmeliet164844122918
Elliott M. Antman161716179462
Caroline S. Fox155599138951
Matthias Egger152901184176
David J. Brooks152105694335
Jens Nielsen1491752104005
William J. Sutherland14896694423
Nader Rifai144539104536
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