About: Aichi Mizuho College is a education organization based out in Toyota, Japan. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Diabetes mellitus & Workload. The organization has 32 authors who have published 60 publications receiving 601 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is concluded that training-induced molecular and humoral adjustments, including muscle hyperthermia, are physiological, transient and essential for training effects (myofiber regeneration, muscle hypertrophy and improved blood supply).
Abstract: The influence of regular post-exercise cold application to exercised muscles trained by ergometer cycling (leg muscles) or handgrip exercise using a weight-loaded handgrip ergometer (forearm flexor muscles) was studied in human volunteers. Muscle loads were applied during exercise programs three to four times a week for 4-6 weeks. Besides measuring parameters characterizing muscle performance, femoral and brachial artery diameters were determined ultrasonographically. Training effects were identified by comparing pre- and post-training parameters in matched groups separately for the trained limbs cooled after exercise by cold-water immersion and the corresponding trained limbs kept at room temperature. Significant training effects were three times more frequent in the control than in the cold group, including increases in artery diameters in the control but not in the cold group. It is concluded that training-induced molecular and humoral adjustments, including muscle hyperthermia, are physiological, transient and essential for training effects (myofiber regeneration, muscle hypertrophy and improved blood supply). Cooling generally attenuates these temperature-dependent processes and, in particular, hyperthermia-induced HSP formation. This seems disadvantageous for training, in contrast to the beneficial combination of rest, ice, compression and elevation in the treatment of macroscopic musculo-tendinous damage.
TL;DR: The risk of lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking was substantially higher in United States than in Japanese males, consistent with population-based statistics on smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence.
Abstract: Rates of lung cancer in American men have greatly exceeded those in Japanese men for several decades despite the higher smoking prevalence in Japanese men. It is not known whether the relative risk of lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking is lower in Japanese men than American men and whether these risks vary by the amount and duration of smoking. To estimate smoking-specific relative risks for lung cancer in men, a multicentric case-control study was carried out in New York City, Washington, DC, and Nagoya, Japan from 1992 to 1998. A total of 371 cases and 373 age-matched controls were interviewed in United States hospitals and 410 cases and 252 hospital controls in Japanese hospitals; 411 Japanese age-matched healthy controls were also randomly selected from electoral rolls. The odds ratio (OR) for lung cancer in current United States smokers relative to nonsmokers was 40.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.8-79.6], which was >10 times higher than the OR of 3.5 for current smokers in Japanese relative to hospital controls (95% CI = 1.6-7.5) and six times higher than in Japanese relative to community controls (OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 3.7-10.9). There were no substantial differences in the mean number of years of smoking or average daily number of cigarettes smoked between United States and Japanese cases or between United States and Japanese controls, but American cases began smoking on average 2.5 years earlier than Japanese cases. The risk of lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking was substantially higher in United States than in Japanese males, consistent with population-based statistics on smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence. Possible explanations for this difference in risk include a more toxic cigarette formulation of American manufactured cigarettes as evidenced by higher concentrations of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in both tobacco and mainstream smoke, the much wider use of activated charcoal in the filters of Japanese than in American cigarettes, as well as documented differences in genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors other than smoking.
TL;DR: To prevent visual and musculoskeletal problems using NPCs, a more upright head and neck position was recommended and the addition of a mechanism for adjustment of the height of an NPC display would allow a comfortable downward gaze without the loss of correct posture.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate working conditions using a personal computer with a flat panel display (FPD) in terms of visual and musculoskeletal comfort. Measurements of viewing distance, viewing angle, head angle, neck angle and electromyogram (EMG) activities of the neck, shoulder and back muscles of visual display terminal (VDT) operators were compared at workstations using an FPD and a desktop personal computer (DPC). A notebook personal computer (NPC) with a 10.4 inches FPD, was used in this experiment. Each of 10 healthy subjects performed word processing tasks using both NPC and DPC workstations. Significant differences in the work posture while using the NPC and DPC were seen with viewing distance, viewing angle and head angle. The characteristic features of the work posture using the NPC were a remarkably short viewing distance and a forward inclination of the head. The value of integrated EMG (IEMG) of the neck muscle was greater while using the NPC than when using the DPC. These phenomena were caused by the structure of NPCs; most NPCs have a display and keyboard which cannot be separated and are not adjustable without tilt and swivel mechanisms. VDT devices that cannot be adjusted may potentially make operators assume a poor posture while working, which could cause visual and musculoskeletal disorders. To prevent visual and musculoskeletal problems using NPCs, a more upright head and neck position was recommended. The addition of a mechanism for adjustment of the height of an NPC display would allow a comfortable downward gaze without the loss of correct posture.
TL;DR: The occurrence of visual fatigue due to 4-hr VDT operation was also confirmed by CFF measurements and reported subjective visual symptoms in this experiment.
Abstract: In spite of the clarification of some significant physiological factors of visual fatigue caused by VDT work, pupillary reflexes have not been studied as to how they are affected after prolonged visual work. This study examined visual function changes objectively in terms of pupillary reflexes and lens accommodative responses after a 4-hr VDT operation task. The relationship between the two functions was also examined. Two measurements in this paper revealed the physiological function changes due to VDT operation. The subjects involved were five students with an average age of 22.6 years. First, near-reflex measurement ascertained decreases in amplitude and the velocity of accommodation function after the visual task. Second, light-reflex measurement revealed a delay of the reflex, an increase in the amplitude of the reflex, and a decrease in pupil size after the visual task. A weak correlation between the decrease in pupil size and accommodation function was found. The occurrence of visual fatigue due to 4-hr VDT operation was also confirmed by CFF measurements and reported subjective visual symptoms in this experiment.
TL;DR: Local muscle endurance increased in both groups, but the increase in the cooled group tended to be lower compared to the noncooled group.
Abstract: This study examined the effects of regular post-exercise cold application on muscular and vascular adaptations induced by moderate-intensity resistance training. 14 male subjects participated in resistance training: 5 sets of 8 wrist-flexion exercises at workload of 70–80% of the single repetition maximum, 3 times a week for 6 weeks. 7 subjects immersed their experimental forearms in cold water (10±1°C) for 20 min after wrist-flexion exercises (cooled group), and the other 7 served as control subjects (noncooled group). Measurements were taken before and after the training period; wrist-flexor thickness, brachial-artery diameter, maximal muscle strength, and local muscle endurance were measured in upper extremities. Wrist-flexor thicknesses of the experimental arms increased after training in both groups, but the extent of each increase was significantly less in the cooled group compared with the noncooled group. Maximal muscle strength and brachial-artery diameter did not increase in the cooled group, while they increased in the noncooled group. Local muscle endurance increased in both groups, but the increase in the cooled group tended to be lower compared to the noncooled group. Regular post-exercise cold application to muscles might attenuate muscular and vascular adaptations to resistance training.
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