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Institution

Alfred Hospital

HealthcareMelbourne, Victoria, Australia
About: Alfred Hospital is a healthcare organization based out in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Intensive care. The organization has 6105 authors who have published 11372 publications receiving 449759 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The angiotensin-II-receptor blocker irbesartan is effective in protecting against the progression of nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes, independent of the reduction in blood pressure it causes.
Abstract: Background It is unknown whether either the angiotensin-II–receptor blocker irbesartan or the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine slows the progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of its capacity to lower the systemic blood pressure. Methods We randomly assigned 1715 hypertensive patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes to treatment with irbesartan (300 mg daily), amlodipine (10 mg daily), or placebo. The target blood pressure was 135/85 mm Hg or less in all groups. We compared the groups with regard to the time to the primary composite end point of a doubling of the base-line serum creatinine concentration, the development of end-stage renal disease, or death from any cause. We also compared them with regard to the time to a secondary, cardiovascular composite end point. Results The mean duration of follow-up was 2.6 years. Treatment with irbesartan was associated with a risk of the primary composite end point that was 20 percent lower than that in the placebo gro...

5,484 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This randomized, controlled trial compared the effects of moderate hypothermia and normothermia in patients who remained unconscious after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to survive to hospital discharge and be discharged to home or to a rehabilitation facility.
Abstract: Background Cardiac arrest outside the hospital is common and has a poor outcome. Studies in laboratory animals suggest that hypothermia induced shortly after the restoration of spontaneous circulation may improve neurologic outcome, but there have been no conclusive studies in humans. In a randomized, controlled trial, we compared the effects of moderate hypothermia and normothermia in patients who remained unconscious after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods The study subjects were 77 patients who were randomly assigned to treatment with hypothermia (with the core body temperature reduced to 33°C within 2 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation and maintained at that temperature for 12 hours) or normothermia. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge with sufficiently good neurologic function to be discharged to home or to a rehabilitation facility. Results The demographic characteristics of the patients were similar in the hypothermia and normotherm...

4,631 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Aug 2005-JAMA
TL;DR: In this article, the period prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) was found to be between 5% and 6% and was associated with a high hospital mortality rate.
Abstract: ContextAlthough acute renal failure (ARF) is believed to be common in the setting of critical illness and is associated with a high risk of death, little is known about its epidemiology and outcome or how these vary in different regions of the world.ObjectivesTo determine the period prevalence of ARF in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in multiple countries; to characterize differences in etiology, illness severity, and clinical practice; and to determine the impact of these differences on patient outcomes.Design, Setting, and PatientsProspective observational study of ICU patients who either were treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) or fulfilled at least 1 of the predefined criteria for ARF from September 2000 to December 2001 at 54 hospitals in 23 countries.Main Outcome MeasuresOccurrence of ARF, factors contributing to etiology, illness severity, treatment, need for renal support after hospital discharge, and hospital mortality.ResultsOf 29 269 critically ill patients admitted during the study period, 1738 (5.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5%-6.0%) had ARF during their ICU stay, including 1260 who were treated with RRT. The most common contributing factor to ARF was septic shock (47.5%; 95% CI, 45.2%-49.5%). Approximately 30% of patients had preadmission renal dysfunction. Overall hospital mortality was 60.3% (95% CI, 58.0%-62.6%). Dialysis dependence at hospital discharge was 13.8% (95% CI, 11.2%-16.3%) for survivors. Independent risk factors for hospital mortality included use of vasopressors (odds ratio [OR], 1.95; 95% CI, 1.50-2.55; P<.001), mechanical ventilation (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.58-2.82; P<.001), septic shock (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.03-1.79; P = .03), cardiogenic shock (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.90; P = .02), and hepatorenal syndrome (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.07-3.28; P = .03).ConclusionIn this multinational study, the period prevalence of ARF requiring RRT in the ICU was between 5% and 6% and was associated with a high hospital mortality rate.

3,706 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients with a colorectal tumor bearing mutated K-ras did not benefit from cetuximab, whereas patients with a tumor bearing wild-type K-ra did benefit fromcetuxIMab.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Treatment with cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, improves overall and progression-free survival and preserves the quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer that has not responded to chemotherapy. The mutation status of the K-ras gene in the tumor may affect the response to cetuximab and have treatment-independent prognostic value. METHODS We analyzed tumor samples, obtained from 394 of 572 patients (68.9%) with colo rectal cancer who were randomly assigned to receive cetuximab plus best supportive care or best supportive care alone, to look for activating mutations in exon 2 of the K-ras gene. We assessed whether the mutation status of the K-ras gene was associated with survival in the cetuximab and supportive-care groups. RESULTS Of the tumors evaluated for K-ras mutations, 42.3% had at least one mutation in exon 2 of the gene. The effectiveness of cetuximab was significantly associated with K-ras mutation status (P = 0.01 and P<0.001 for the interaction of K-ras mutation status with overall survival and progression-free survival, respectively). In patients with wild-type K-ras tumors, treatment with cetuximab as compared with supportive care alone significantly improved overall survival (median, 9.5 vs. 4.8 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.74; P<0.001) and progression-free survival (median, 3.7 months vs. 1.9 months; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54; P<0.001). Among patients with mutated K-ras tumors, there was no significant difference between those who were treated with cetuximab and those who received supportive care alone with respect to overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.98; P = 0.89) or progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.99; P = 0.96). In the group of patients receiving best supportive care alone, the mutation status of the K-ras gene was not significantly associated with overall survival (hazard ratio for death, 1.01; P = 0.97). CONCLUSIONS Patients with a colorectal tumor bearing mutated K-ras did not benefit from cetuximab, whereas patients with a tumor bearing wild-type K-ras did benefit from cetuximab. The mutation status of the K-ras gene had no influence on survival among patients treated with best supportive care alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00079066.)

3,477 citations


Authors

Showing all 6127 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
David R. Williams1782034138789
Mark E. Cooper1581463124887
Theo Vos156502186409
Mark J. Smyth15371388783
Rinaldo Bellomo1471714120052
Graham G. Giles136124980038
Tim J Cole13682792998
John F. Thompson132142095894
Paul Zimmet128740140376
Neville Owen12770074166
Thomas H. Marwick121106358763
David A. Cooper11790369249
Michael Berk116128457743
Geoffrey A. Donnan11575858971
Jonathan E. Shaw114629108114
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
20236
202226
2021609
2020622
2019529
2018465