About: Applied Biosystems is a(n) based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Mass spectrometry & Capillary electrophoresis. The organization has 1521 authors who have published 1579 publication(s) receiving 285423 citation(s).
Topics: Mass spectrometry, Capillary electrophoresis, Nucleic acid, Oligonucleotide, Tandem mass spectrometry
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The 2-Delta Delta C(T) method as mentioned in this paper was proposed to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments, and it has been shown to be useful in the analysis of realtime, quantitative PCR data.
Abstract: The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data.
01 Jan 2008-Nature Protocols
TL;DR: This protocol provides an overview of the comparative CT method for quantitative gene expression studies and various examples to present quantitative gene Expression data using this method.
Abstract: Two different methods of presenting quantitative gene expression exist: absolute and relative quantification. Absolute quantification calculates the copy number of the gene usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative gene expression presents the data of the gene of interest relative to some calibrator or internal control gene. A widely used method to present relative gene expression is the comparative C(T) method also referred to as the 2 (-DeltaDeltaC(T)) method. This protocol provides an overview of the comparative C(T) method for quantitative gene expression studies. Also presented here are various examples to present quantitative gene expression data using this method.
J. Craig Venter1, Mark Raymond Adams1, Eugene W. Myers1, Peter W. Li1 +269 more•Institutions (12)
TL;DR: Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems are indicated.
Abstract: A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five individuals. Two assembly strategies-a whole-genome assembly and a regional chromosome assembly-were used, each combining sequence data from Celera and the publicly funded genome effort. The public data were shredded into 550-bp segments to create a 2.9-fold coverage of those genome regions that had been sequenced, without including biases inherent in the cloning and assembly procedure used by the publicly funded group. This brought the effective coverage in the assemblies to eightfold, reducing the number and size of gaps in the final assembly over what would be obtained with 5.11-fold coverage. The two assembly strategies yielded very similar results that largely agree with independent mapping data. The assemblies effectively cover the euchromatic regions of the human chromosomes. More than 90% of the genome is in scaffold assemblies of 100,000 bp or more, and 25% of the genome is in scaffolds of 10 million bp or larger. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed 26,588 protein-encoding transcripts for which there was strong corroborating evidence and an additional approximately 12,000 computationally derived genes with mouse matches or other weak supporting evidence. Although gene-dense clusters are obvious, almost half the genes are dispersed in low G+C sequence separated by large tracts of apparently noncoding sequence. Only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA. Duplications of segmental blocks, ranging in size up to chromosomal lengths, are abundant throughout the genome and reveal a complex evolutionary history. Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems. DNA sequence comparisons between the consensus sequence and publicly funded genome data provided locations of 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A random pair of human haploid genomes differed at a rate of 1 bp per 1250 on average, but there was marked heterogeneity in the level of polymorphism across the genome. Less than 1% of all SNPs resulted in variation in proteins, but the task of determining which SNPs have functional consequences remains an open challenge.
01 Jan 2005-Nucleic Acids Research
TL;DR: A novel microRNA quantification method has been developed using stem–loop RT followed by TaqMan PCR analysis, which enables fast, accurate and sensitive miRNA expression profiling and can identify and monitor potential biomarkers specific to tissues or diseases.
Abstract: A novel microRNA (miRNA) quantification method has been developed using stem–loop RT followed by TaqMan PCR analysis. Stem–loop RT primers are better than conventional ones in terms of RT efficiency and specificity. TaqMan miRNA assays are specific for mature miRNAs and discriminate among related miRNAs that differ by as little as one nucleotide. Furthermore, they are not affected by genomic DNA contamination. Precise quantification is achieved routinely with as little as 25 pg of total RNA for most miRNAs. In fact, the high sensitivity, specificity and precision of this method allows for direct analysis of a single cell without nucleic acid purification. Like standard TaqMan gene expression assays, TaqMan miRNA assays exhibit a dynamic range of seven orders of magnitude. Quantification of five miRNAs in seven mouse tissues showed variation from less than 10 to more than 30 000 copies per cell. This method enables fast, accurate and sensitive miRNA expression profiling and can identify and monitor potential biomarkers specific to tissues or diseases. Stem–loop RT–PCR can be used for the quantification of other small RNA molecules such as short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Furthermore, the concept of stem–loop RT primer design could be applied in small RNA cloning and multiplex assays for better specificity and efficiency.
TL;DR: It is found that inactivation of Upf1p and Xrn1p causes common as well as unique effects on protein expression, and the use of 4-fold multiplexing to enable relative protein measurements simultaneously with determination of absolute levels of a target protein using synthetic isobaric peptide standards.
Abstract: We describe here a multiplexed protein quantitation strategy that provides relative and absolute measurements of proteins in complex mixtures. At the core of this methodology is a multiplexed set of isobaric reagents that yield amine-derivatized peptides. The derivatized peptides are indistinguishable in MS, but exhibit intense low-mass MS/MS signature ions that support quantitation. In this study, we have examined the global protein expression of a wild-type yeast strain and the isogenic upf1Delta and xrn1Delta mutant strains that are defective in the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and the general 5' to 3' decay pathways, respectively. We also demonstrate the use of 4-fold multiplexing to enable relative protein measurements simultaneously with determination of absolute levels of a target protein using synthetic isobaric peptide standards. We find that inactivation of Upf1p and Xrn1p causes common as well as unique effects on protein expression.
Showing all 1521 results
|Richard A. Gibbs||172||889||249708|
|Friedrich C. Luft||113||1095||47619|
|Alexander N. Glazer||71||208||21068|
|Kevin R. Coombes||63||308||23592|
|Darryl J. Pappin||61||170||29409|
|Mark D. Johnson||60||289||16103|
|Michael W. Hunkapiller||51||130||29756|
|Bjarni V. Halldorsson||51||145||13180|
|David H. Hawke||50||157||9824|
|Ellson Y. Chen||50||71||28836|
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