Atlantic Salmon Federation
About: Atlantic Salmon Federation is a(n) based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Salmo & Population. The organization has 50 authors who have published 59 publication(s) receiving 2088 citation(s).
Topics: Salmo, Population, Aquaculture, Fish migration, Heritability
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 May 2005-BioScience
TL;DR: It is shown that risks of damage to wild salmon populations, ecosystems, and society are large when salmon arefarmed in their native range, when large numbers of salmon are farmed relative to the size of wild populations, and when exotic pathogens are introduced.
Abstract: The farming of salmon and other marine finfish in open net pens continues to increase along the world's coastlines as the aquaculture industry expands to meet human demand. Farm fish are known to escape from pens in all salmon aquaculture areas. Their escape into the wild can result in interbreeding and competition with wild salmon and can facilitate the spread of pathogens, thereby placing more pressure on already dwindling wild populations. Here we assess the ecological, genetic, and socioeconomic impacts of farm salmon escapes, using a risk-assessment framework. We show that risks of damage to wild salmon populations, ecosystems, and society are large when salmon are farmed in their native range, when large numbers of salmon are farmed relative to the size of wild populations, and when exotic pathogens are introduced. We then evaluate the policy and management options for reducing risks and discuss the implications for farming other types of marine finfish.
01 Jul 2012-Journal of Fish Biology
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors synthesize and review the environmental factors affecting the migration behavior and survival of smolts and post-smolts during the river, estuarine and early marine phases, and how behavioral patterns are linked to survival.
Abstract: The anadromous life cycle of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar involves long migrations to novel environments and challenging physiological transformations when moving between salt-free and salt-rich waters. In this article, (1) environmental factors affecting the migration behaviour and survival of smolts and post-smolts during the river, estuarine and early marine phases, (2) how behavioural patterns are linked to survival and (3) how anthropogenic factors affect migration and survival are synthesized and reviewed based on published literature. The timing of the smolt migration is important in determining marine survival. The timing varies among rivers, most likely as a consequence of local adaptations, to ensure sea entry during optimal periods. Smolts and post-smolts swim actively and fast during migration, but in areas with strong currents, their own movements may be overridden by current-induced transport. Progression rates during the early marine migration vary between 0.4 and 3.0 body lengths s(-1) relative to the ground. Reported mortality is 0.3-7.0% (median 2.3) km(-1) during downriver migration, 0.6-36% (median 6.0) km(-1) in estuaries and 0.3-3.4% (median 1.4) km(-1) in coastal areas. Estuaries and river mouths are the sites of the highest mortalities, with predation being a common cause. The mortality rates varied more among studies in estuaries than in rivers and marine areas, which probably reflects the huge variation among estuaries in their characteristics. Behaviour and survival during migration may also be affected by pollution, fish farming, sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis, hydropower development and other anthropogenic activities that may be directly lethal, delay migration or have indirect effects by inhibiting migration. Total mortality reported during early marine migration (up to 5-230 km from the river mouths) in the studies available to date varies between 8 and 71%. Hence, the early marine migration is a life stage with high mortalities, due to both natural and human influences. Factors affecting mortality during the smolt and post-smolt stages contribute to determine the abundance of spawner returns. With many S. salar populations in decline, increased mortality at these stages may considerably contribute to limit S. salar production, and the consequences of human-induced mortality at this stage may be severe. Development of management actions to increase survival and fitness at the smolt and post-smolt stages is crucial to re-establish or conserve wild populations.
TL;DR: Results indicate that farmed escapees have introgressed with wild Magaguadavic salmon resulting in significant alteration of the genetic integrity of the native population, including possible loss of adaptation to wild conditions.
Abstract: In some wild Atlantic salmon populations, rapid declines in numbers of wild returning adults has been associated with an increase in the prevalence of farmed salmon. Studies of phenotypic variation have shown that interbreeding between farmed and wild salmon may lead to loss of local adaptation. Yet, few studies have attempted to assess the impact of interbreeding at the genome level, especially among North American populations. Here, we document temporal changes in the genetic makeup of the severely threatened Magaguadavic River salmon population (Bay of Fundy, Canada), a population that might have been impacted by interbreeding with farmed salmon for nearly 20 years. Wild and farmed individuals caught entering the river from 1980 to 2005 were genotyped at 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and/or eight microsatellite loci, to scan for potential shifts in adaptive genetic variation. No significant temporal change in microsatellite-based estimates of allele richness or gene diversity was detected in the wild population, despite its precipitous decline in numbers over the last two decades. This might reflect the effect of introgression from farmed salmon, which was corroborated by temporal change in linkage-disequilibrium. Moreover, SNP genome scans identified a temporal decrease in candidate loci potentially under directional selection. Of particular interest was a SNP previously shown to be strongly associated with an important quantitative trait locus for parr mark number, which retained its genetic distinctiveness between farmed and wild fish longer than other outliers. Overall, these results indicate that farmed escapees have introgressed with wild Magaguadavic salmon resulting in significant alteration of the genetic integrity of the native population, including possible loss of adaptation to wild conditions.
01 Dec 1991-Aquaculture Research
TL;DR: A strong and significant positive correlation was observed between condition factor and total lipid content in immature Atlantic salmon sampled at the same time and can be used as a convenient non-lethal indicator of energy reserve status among immature salmonids.
Abstract: . A strong and significant positive correlation was observed between condition factor and total lipid content in immature Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr (0+) sampled at the same time. Condition factor can thus be used as a convenient non-lethal indicator of energy reserve status among immature salmonids.
01 May 1998-Hydrobiologia
TL;DR: In this article, miniature pingers and automated receivers were developed and tested over three years to track Atlantic salmon smolts of different size and origin as they migrated from fresh water and at sea.
Abstract: Miniature pingers and automated receivers were developed and tested over three years to track Atlantic salmon smolts of different size and origin as they migrated from fresh water and at sea. Pingers (8 mm diameter × 38 mm) with delayed activation were first tested and surgically implanted in large hatchery-reared smolts (31 cm). After improvements, these pingers were implanted in smaller hatchery smolts (23 cm) in a second study. They were detected by automated receivers at fixed sites and tracked at sea as far as 49 km. Range of detection was at least 400 m, and duration of improved pingers exceeded 75 d. Pingers were then reduced in size (8 mm × 26 mm) by using a custom integrated circuit, and they were implanted and tested in wild smolts (18 cm) in a third study. They were tracked over the same period and distances as the previous year. Power output was maintained and signal strength and range of detection were as good as for the larger pingers, and pinger duration was up to 86 d. In all tests, the frequency of transmitters was crystal controlled for decoding by the narrow-band automated receivers moored underwater at fixed sites. A laboratory study to examine the long-term effects of surgically implanting dummy pingers of different sizes (8 mm × 24, 28, and 32 mm) in juvenile salmon (15 cm) indicated that pinger shape needed modification to increase retention time past 5–6 mo and that pinger size should be reduced further to eliminate mortality. These studies have led to the development of miniature coded transmitters and small single-channel receivers which will make it possible to detect and track large numbers of small, wild salmon smolts over long distances and for several months at sea.
Showing all 50 results
|Jeffrey A. Hutchings||68||230||18211|
|Dylan J. Fraser||31||100||4693|
|Frederick G. Whoriskey||20||60||1264|
|Matthew R. J. Morris||7||15||310|
|Eric Blake Brunsdon||3||4||26|
|Nathan M. Wilbur||2||2||50|
|G. W. Friars||2||2||20|
|S. A. McGeachy||2||2||198|
|G. W. Friars||2||2||23|
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