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Bell Labs

About: Bell Labs is a(n) based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Laser & Optical fiber. The organization has 36499 authors who have published 59862 publication(s) receiving 3190823 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Bell Laboratories & AT&T Bell Laboratories.
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Vladimir Vapnik1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: Setting of the learning problem consistency of learning processes bounds on the rate of convergence ofLearning processes controlling the generalization ability of learning process constructing learning algorithms what is important in learning theory?
Abstract: Setting of the learning problem consistency of learning processes bounds on the rate of convergence of learning processes controlling the generalization ability of learning processes constructing learning algorithms what is important in learning theory?.

38,164 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Corinna Cortes1, Vladimir Vapnik1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: High generalization ability of support-vector networks utilizing polynomial input transformations is demonstrated and the performance of the support- vector network is compared to various classical learning algorithms that all took part in a benchmark study of Optical Character Recognition.
Abstract: The support-vector network is a new learning machine for two-group classification problems. The machine conceptually implements the following idea: input vectors are non-linearly mapped to a very high-dimension feature space. In this feature space a linear decision surface is constructed. Special properties of the decision surface ensures high generalization ability of the learning machine. The idea behind the support-vector network was previously implemented for the restricted case where the training data can be separated without errors. We here extend this result to non-separable training data. High generalization ability of support-vector networks utilizing polynomial input transformations is demonstrated. We also compare the performance of the support-vector network to various classical learning algorithms that all took part in a benchmark study of Optical Character Recognition.

35,157 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Yann LeCun1, Léon Bottou2, Léon Bottou3, Yoshua Bengio2  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
01 Jan 1998
Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

34,930 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Lawrence R. Rabiner1Institutions (1)
01 Feb 1989
Abstract: This tutorial provides an overview of the basic theory of hidden Markov models (HMMs) as originated by L.E. Baum and T. Petrie (1966) and gives practical details on methods of implementation of the theory along with a description of selected applications of the theory to distinct problems in speech recognition. Results from a number of original sources are combined to provide a single source of acquiring the background required to pursue further this area of research. The author first reviews the theory of discrete Markov chains and shows how the concept of hidden states, where the observation is a probabilistic function of the state, can be used effectively. The theory is illustrated with two simple examples, namely coin-tossing, and the classic balls-in-urns system. Three fundamental problems of HMMs are noted and several practical techniques for solving these problems are given. The various types of HMMs that have been studied, including ergodic as well as left-right models, are described. >

20,894 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
S. S. Shapiro1, M. B. Wilk1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The main intent of this paper is to introduce a new statistical procedure for testing a complete sample for normality. The test statistic is obtained by dividing the square of an appropriate linear combination of the sample order statistics by the usual symmetric estimate of variance. This ratio is both scale and origin invariant and hence the statistic is appropriate for a test of the composite hypothesis of normality. Testing for distributional assumptions in general and for normality in particular has been a major area of continuing statistical research-both theoretically and practically. A possible cause of such sustained interest is that many statistical procedures have been derived based on particular distributional assumptions-especially that of normality. Although in many cases the techniques are more robust than the assumptions underlying them, still a knowledge that the underlying assumption is incorrect may temper the use and application of the methods. Moreover, the study of a body of data with the stimulus of a distributional test may encourage consideration of, for example, normalizing transformations and the use of alternate methods such as distribution-free techniques, as well as detection of gross peculiarities such as outliers or errors. The test procedure developed in this paper is defined and some of its analytical properties described in ? 2. Operational information and tables useful in employing the test are detailed in ? 3 (which may be read independently of the rest of the paper). Some examples are given in ? 4. Section 5 consists of an extract from an empirical sampling study of the comparison of the effectiveness of various alternative tests. Discussion and concluding remarks are given in ?6. 2. THE W TEST FOR NORMALITY (COMPLETE SAMPLES) 2 1. Motivation and early work This study was initiated, in part, in an attempt to summarize formally certain indications of probability plots. In particular, could one condense departures from statistical linearity of probability plots into one or a few 'degrees of freedom' in the manner of the application of analysis of variance in regression analysis? In a probability plot, one can consider the regression of the ordered observations on the expected values of the order statistics from a standardized version of the hypothesized distribution-the plot tending to be linear if the hypothesis is true. Hence a possible method of testing the distributional assumptionis by means of an analysis of variance type procedure. Using generalized least squares (the ordered variates are correlated) linear and higher-order

14,641 citations


Showing all 36499 results

Yoshua Bengio2021033420313
David R. Williams1782034138789
John A. Rogers1771341127390
Zhenan Bao169865106571
Stephen R. Forrest1481041111816
Bernhard Schölkopf1481092149492
Thomas S. Huang1461299101564
Kurt Wüthrich143739103253
John D. Joannopoulos137956100831
Steven G. Louie13777788794
Joss Bland-Hawthorn136111477593
Marvin L. Cohen13497987767
Federico Capasso134118976957
Christos Faloutsos12778977746
Robert J. Cava125104271819
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