Institution

# Birkbeck, University of London

Education•London, United Kingdom•

About: Birkbeck, University of London is a education organization based out in London, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Politics. The organization has 6347 authors who have published 17717 publications receiving 720756 citations. The organization is also known as: Birkbeck College & London Mechanics' Institute.

Topics: Population, Politics, Autism, Protein structure, Cognition

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TL;DR: A comparative protein modelling method designed to find the most probable structure for a sequence given its alignment with related structures, which is automated and illustrated by the modelling of trypsin from two other serine proteinases.

Abstract: We describe a comparative protein modelling method designed to find the most probable structure for a sequence given its alignment with related structures. The three-dimensional (3D) model is obtained by optimally satisfying spatial restraints derived from the alignment and expressed as probability density functions (pdfs) for the features restrained. For example, the probabilities for main-chain conformations of a modelled residue may be restrained by its residue type, main-chain conformation of an equivalent residue in a related protein, and the local similarity between the two sequences. Several such pdfs are obtained from the correlations between structural features in 17 families of homologous proteins which have been aligned on the basis of their 3D structures. The pdfs restrain C alpha-C alpha distances, main-chain N-O distances, main-chain and side-chain dihedral angles. A smoothing procedure is used in the derivation of these relationships to minimize the problem of a sparse database. The 3D model of a protein is obtained by optimization of the molecular pdf such that the model violates the input restraints as little as possible. The molecular pdf is derived as a combination of pdfs restraining individual spatial features of the whole molecule. The optimization procedure is a variable target function method that applies the conjugate gradients algorithm to positions of all non-hydrogen atoms. The method is automated and is illustrated by the modelling of trypsin from two other serine proteinases.

12,386 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, Lindley et al. make the less restrictive assumption that such a normal, homoscedastic, linear model is appropriate after some suitable transformation has been applied to the y's.

Abstract: [Read at a RESEARCH METHODS MEETING of the SOCIETY, April 8th, 1964, Professor D. V. LINDLEY in the Chair] SUMMARY In the analysis of data it is often assumed that observations Yl, Y2, *-, Yn are independently normally distributed with constant variance and with expectations specified by a model linear in a set of parameters 0. In this paper we make the less restrictive assumption that such a normal, homoscedastic, linear model is appropriate after some suitable transformation has been applied to the y's. Inferences about the transformation and about the parameters of the linear model are made by computing the likelihood function and the relevant posterior distribution. The contributions of normality, homoscedasticity and additivity to the transformation are separated. The relation of the present methods to earlier procedures for finding transformations is discussed. The methods are illustrated with examples.

12,158 citations

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25 Dec 2021TL;DR: The aim of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is to explore in detail how participants are making sense of their personal and social world, and the main currency for an IPA study is the meanings particular experiences, events, states hold for participants as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: The aim of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) is to explore in detail how participants are making sense of their personal and social world, and the main currency for an IPA study is the meanings particular experiences, events, states hold for participants. The approach is phenomenological (see Chapter 3) in that it involves detailed examination of the participant’s lifeworld; it attempts to explore personal experience and is concerned with an individual’s personal perception or account of an object or event, as opposed to an attempt to produce an objective statement of the object or event itself. At the same time, IPA also emphasizes that the research exercise is a dynamic process with an active role for the researcher in that process. One is trying to get close to the participant’s personal world, to take, in Conrad’s (1987) words, an ‘insider’s perspective’, but one cannot do this directly or completely. Access depends on, and is complicated by, the researcher’s own conceptions; indeed, these are required in order to make sense of that other personal world through a process of interpretative activity. Thus, a two-stage interpretation process, or a double hermeneutic, is involved. The participants are trying to make sense of their world; the researcher is trying to make sense of the participants trying to make sense of their world. IPA is therefore intellectually connected to hermeneutics and theories of interpretation (Packer and Addison, 1989; Palmer, 1969; Smith, in press; see also Chapter 2 this volume). Different interpretative stances are possible, and IPA combines an empathic hermeneutics with a questioning hermeneutics. Thus, consistent with its phenomenological origins, IPA is concerned with trying to understand what it is like, from the point of view of the participants, to take their side. At the same time, a detailed IPA analysis can also involve asking critical questions of the texts from participants, such as the following: What is the person trying to achieve here? Is something leaking out here that wasn’t intended? Do I have a sense of something going on here that maybe the participants themselves are less aware of?

5,225 citations

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TL;DR: In panel data four procedures are widely used: pooling, aggregating, averaging group estimates, and cross-section regression as discussed by the authors, and the theoretical results on the properties of these procedures are illustrated by UK labour demand functions for 38 industries over 30 years.

Abstract: In panel data four procedures are widely used: pooling, aggregating, averaging group estimates, and cross-section regression. In the static case, if the coefficients differ randomly, all four procedures give unbiased estimates of coefficient means. In the dynamic case, when the coefficients differ across groups, pooling and aggregating give inconsistent and potentially highly misleading estimates of the coefficients, though the cross-section can provide consistent estimates of the long-run effects. The theoretical results on the properties of the four procedures are illustrated by UK labour demand functions for 38 industries over 30 years.

4,599 citations

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TL;DR: The pooled mean group estimator (PMG) estimator as discussed by the authors constrains long-run coefficients to be identical but allows short run coefficients and error variances to differ across groups.

Abstract: It is now quite common to have panels in which both T, the number of time series observations, and N, the number of groups, are quite large and of the same order of magnitude. The usual practice is either to estimate N separate regressions and calculate the coefficient means, which we call the mean group (MG) estimator, or to pool the data and assume that the slope coefficients and error variances are identical. In this article we propose an intermediate procedure, the pooled mean group (PMG) estimator, which constrains long-run coefficients to be identical but allows short-run coefficients and error variances to differ across groups. We consider both the case where the regressors are stationary and the case where they follow unit root processes, and for both cases derive the asymptotic distribution of the PMG estimators as T tends to infinity. We also provide two empirical applications: Aggregate consumption functions for 24 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development economies over th...

4,592 citations

##### Authors

Showing all 6483 results

Name | H-index | Papers | Citations |
---|---|---|---|

Karl J. Friston | 217 | 1267 | 217169 |

Christopher M. Dobson | 150 | 1008 | 105475 |

Richard S. J. Frackowiak | 142 | 309 | 100726 |

Jeremy K. Nicholson | 141 | 773 | 80275 |

Dacheng Tao | 133 | 1362 | 68263 |

Janet M. Thornton | 130 | 539 | 105144 |

Jay Belsky | 124 | 441 | 55582 |

Nicholas W. Wood | 123 | 614 | 66270 |

Elaine Holmes | 119 | 560 | 58975 |

Andrej Sali | 119 | 430 | 74984 |

David Cox | 118 | 588 | 134615 |

Cathy J. Price | 112 | 313 | 45735 |

Xuelong Li | 110 | 1044 | 46648 |

Ju Li | 109 | 623 | 46004 |

Peter J. Sadler | 106 | 719 | 41608 |