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Institution

Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung

FacilityBerlin, Germany
About: Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung is a facility organization based out in Berlin, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Welding & Laser. The organization has 3941 authors who have published 7916 publications receiving 171172 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work compares and evaluates the differences in physicochemical properties of common fluorescent labels, focusing on traditional organic dyes and QDs, to provide a better understanding of the advantages and limitations of both classes of chromophores.
Abstract: Suitable labels are at the core of Luminescence and fluorescence imaging and sensing. One of the most exciting, yet also controversial, advances in label technology is the emerging development of quantum dots (QDs)--inorganic nanocrystals with unique optical and chemical properties but complicated surface chemistry--as in vitro and in vivo fluorophores. Here we compare and evaluate the differences in physicochemical properties of common fluorescent labels, focusing on traditional organic dyes and QDs. Our aim is to provide a better understanding of the advantages and limitations of both classes of chromophores, to facilitate label choice and to address future challenges in the rational design and manipulation of QD labels.

3,399 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The atomic force microscope (AFM) is not only used to image the topography of solid surfaces at high resolution but also to measure force-versus-distance curves as discussed by the authors, which provide valuable information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness, Hamaker constant, adhesion and surface charge densities.

3,281 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There are an immense number of sensors reported in the literature for hydrogen detection and in this article these sensors are classified into eight different operating principles, such as measuring range, sensitivity, selectivity and response time.
Abstract: Hydrogen sensors are of increasing importance in connection with the development and expanded use of hydrogen gas as an energy carrier and as a chemical reactant. There are an immense number of sensors reported in the literature for hydrogen detection and in this work these sensors are classified into eight different operating principles. Characteristic performance parameters of these sensor types, such as measuring range, sensitivity, selectivity and response time are reviewed and the latest technology developments are reported. Testing and validation of sensor performance are described in relation to standardisation and use in potentially explosive atmospheres so as to identify the requirements on hydrogen sensors for practical applications.

1,217 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide guidance in the use and interpretation of cone calorimetry for those directly involved with such measurements, and discuss the fire scenario with respect to applied heat flux, length scale, temperature, ventilation, anaerobic pyrolysis and set-up represented by the cone.
Abstract: There is little consensus within the fire science community on interpretation of cone calorimeter data, but there is a significant need to screen new flammability modified materials using the cone calorimeter. This article is the result of several discussions aiming to provide guidance in the use and interpretation of cone calorimetry for those directly involved with such measurements. This guidance is essentially empirical, and is not intended to replace the comprehensive scientific studies that already exist. The guidance discusses the fire scenario with respect to applied heat flux, length scale, temperature, ventilation, anaerobic pyrolysis and set-up represented by the cone calorimeter. The fire properties measured in the cone calorimeter are discussed, including heat release rate and its peak, the mass loss and char yield, effective heat of combustion and combustion efficiency, time to ignition and CO and smoke production together with deduced quantities such as FIGRA and MARHE. Special comments are made on the use of the cone calorimeter relating to sample thickness, textiles, foams and intumescent materials, and the distance of the cone heater from the sample surface. Finally, the relationship between cone calorimetry data and other tests is discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1,116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review introduces the physics behind single-molecule SERS and discusses the capabilities of the effect in bioanalytics and surface enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS).
Abstract: Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) at extremely high enhancement level turns the weak inelastic scattering effect of photons on vibrational quantum states into a structurally sensitive single-molecule and nanoscale probe. The effect opens up exciting opportunities for applications of vibrational spectroscopy in biology. The concept of SERS can be extended to two-photon excitation by exploiting surface enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS). This critical review introduces the physics behind single-molecule SERS and discusses the capabilities of the effect in bioanalytics (100 references).

918 citations


Authors

Showing all 3965 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Harald Ade9651434844
Xiaodong Chen9340031840
Muhammad Farooq92134137533
Axel H. E. Müller8956430283
Alexander Eychmüller8244423688
Reinhard Niessner7856224369
Milo S. P. Shaffer7432523895
Ramón Martínez-Máñez7354924257
Harald Fuchs7361821690
Alexander Bismarck6838918620
Adam F. Lee6830815326
Karen Wilson6732115247
Jean-François Lutz6722618730
Wolfgang Rettig6527816707
James P. Simmer6422712724
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
20239
202270
2021509
2020535
2019489
2018497