scispace - formally typeset

Institution

Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse

NonprofitOttawa, Ontario, Canada
About: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse is a(n) nonprofit organization based out in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Poison control & Population. The organization has 37 authors who have published 65 publication(s) receiving 2341 citation(s).


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Substance abuse exacts a considerable toll on Canadian society in terms of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 21% of deaths, 23% of years of potential life lost, and 8% of hospitalizations.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study estimated morbidity and mortality attributable to substance abuse in Canada. METHODS: Pooled estimates of relative risk were used to calculate etiologic fractions by age, gender, and province for 91 causes of disease or death attributable to alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs. RESULTS: There were 33,498 deaths and 208,095 hospitalizations attributed to tobacco, 6701 deaths and 86,076 hospitalizations due to alcohol, and 732 deaths and 7095 hospitalizations due to illicit drugs in 1992. CONCLUSIONS: Substance abuse exacts a considerable toll on Canadian society in terms of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 21% of deaths, 23% of years of potential life lost, and 8% of hospitalizations.

221 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The economic costs of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in Canadian society in 1992 are estimated utilizing a cost-of-illness framework and recently developed international guidelines.
Abstract: Aims, design and setting. The economic costs of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs to Canadian society in 1992 are estimated utilizing a cost-of-illness framework and recently developed international guidelines. Measurements. For causes of disease or death (using ICD-9 categories), pooled relative risk estimates from meta-analyses are combined with prevalence data by age, gender and province to derive the proportion attributable to alcohol, tobacco and/or illicit drugs. The resulting estimates of attributable deaths and hospitalizations are used to calculate associated health care, law enforcement, productivity and other costs. The results are compared with other studies, and sensitivity analyses are conducted on alternative measures of alcohol consumption, alternative discount rates for productivity costs and the use of diagnostic-specific hospitalization costs. Findings. The misuse of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs cost more than $18.4 billion in Canada in 1992, representing $649 per capita or 2.7% of GDP. Alcohol accounts for approximately $7.52 billion in costs, including $4.14 billion for lost productivity, $1.36 billion for law enforcement and $1.30 billion in direct health care costs. Tobacco accounts for approximately $9.56 billion in costs, including $6.82 billion for lost productivity and $2.68 billion for direct health care costs. The economic costs of illicit drugs are estimated at $1.4 billion. Conclusions. Substance abuse exacts a considerable toll to Canadian society in terms of illness, injury, death and economic costs.

211 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recommendations for research in the area based on the presentations and discussions of the first "International Conference on Social and Health Effects of Different Drinking Patterns" held in Toronto in November 1995 are presented.
Abstract: Recent epidemiological and social studies have increasingly pointed to the importance of drinking patterns in explaining consequences of alcohol consumption This paper presents recommendations for research in the area based on the presentations and discussions of the first "International Conference on Social and Health Effects of Different Drinking Patterns" held in Toronto in November 1995 In particular, the social dimension in pattern research, and the relationship between patterns of drinking and casualties as well as social harm, are stressed The paper also argues for better theories, incorporating knowledge from related basic disciplines In addition, we emphasize the need for improved methodologies and standardized methods for assessing drinking patterns Finally, implications of research on drinking patterns for policy and programme development are discussed

208 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Based on a large-scale 1989 national survey in Canada, the extent of drinking in different social settings is estimated. Home consumption accounts for the greatest share of total drinking. while drinking in licensed establishments accounts for approximately one-fourth of consumption. This estimate is externally validated against scales data. The set of questions on drinking venues produces estimates of individual's alcohol consumption which have higher coverage rates than the more commonly used quantity-frequency or recent occasion approaches. The distribution of total drinking in different settings is strongly related to demographic variables and individual level of consumption. In particular, drinking in bars and taverns is related to higher levels of drinking and self-reported drinking problems. The proportion of drinking in different venues is not strongly related to drinking problems, once demographic variables and individual consumption patterns are taken into account. This does not mean that drinking venue is not a significant factor in the development of problems--it may be via its impact on consumption level and heavy drinking occasions that drinking venue relates to drinking problems.

153 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The evidence reviewed demonstrated that placing limits on both daily intake and cumulative intake over the typical week is justifiable for the prevention of important causes of morbidity and mortality.
Abstract: In 1997 the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario and Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse released updated guidelines for low-risk alcohol consumption. This paper presents the scientific rationale behind this statement. Important comprehensive overviews on the consequences of alcohol use were studied. Formal meta-analyses on morbidity and mortality were examined wherever possible. Individual elements from similar guidelines were investigated for their scientific foundation. Limited original analyses defined risk levels by average weekly consumption. The evidence reviewed demonstrated that placing limits on both daily intake and cumulative intake over the typical week is justifiable for the prevention of important causes of morbidity and mortality. Gender-specific limits on weekly consumption were also indicated. In these updated guidelines intended for primary prevention, days of abstinence are not necessarily recommended. Intoxication should be avoided and abstinence is sometimes advisable. Available evidence does not strongly favour one alcoholic beverage over another for cardiovascular health benefits.

152 citations


Authors
Network Information
Related Institutions (5)
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

10.3K papers, 449.6K citations

78% related

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre

2.6K papers, 143.2K citations

77% related

Oregon Research Institute

1.9K papers, 167.9K citations

74% related

South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust

3.7K papers, 98.1K citations

74% related

Pacific Institute

2.4K papers, 159.3K citations

73% related

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
20211
20174
20167
20159
20143
20122