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Institution

Cardiff University

EducationCardiff, United Kingdom
About: Cardiff University is a(n) education organization based out in Cardiff, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Galaxy. The organization has 34188 authors who have published 82643 publication(s) receiving 3046531 citation(s). The organization is also known as: University of Cardiff & University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Peter A. R. Ade1, Nabila Aghanim2, Monique Arnaud3, M. Ashdown4  +334 moreInstitutions (82)
Abstract: This paper presents cosmological results based on full-mission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Our results are in very good agreement with the 2013 analysis of the Planck nominal-mission temperature data, but with increased precision. The temperature and polarization power spectra are consistent with the standard spatially-flat 6-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted “base ΛCDM” in this paper). From the Planck temperature data combined with Planck lensing, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0 = (67.8 ± 0.9) km s-1Mpc-1, a matter density parameter Ωm = 0.308 ± 0.012, and a tilted scalar spectral index with ns = 0.968 ± 0.006, consistent with the 2013 analysis. Note that in this abstract we quote 68% confidence limits on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters. We present the first results of polarization measurements with the Low Frequency Instrument at large angular scales. Combined with the Planck temperature and lensing data, these measurements give a reionization optical depth of τ = 0.066 ± 0.016, corresponding to a reionization redshift of . These results are consistent with those from WMAP polarization measurements cleaned for dust emission using 353-GHz polarization maps from the High Frequency Instrument. We find no evidence for any departure from base ΛCDM in the neutrino sector of the theory; for example, combining Planck observations with other astrophysical data we find Neff = 3.15 ± 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, consistent with the value Neff = 3.046 of the Standard Model of particle physics. The sum of neutrino masses is constrained to ∑ mν < 0.23 eV. The spatial curvature of our Universe is found to be very close to zero, with | ΩK | < 0.005. Adding a tensor component as a single-parameter extension to base ΛCDM we find an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r0.002< 0.11, consistent with the Planck 2013 results and consistent with the B-mode polarization constraints from a joint analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP B-mode data to our analysis leads to a tighter constraint of r0.002 < 0.09 and disfavours inflationarymodels with a V(φ) ∝ φ2 potential. The addition of Planck polarization data leads to strong constraints on deviations from a purely adiabatic spectrum of fluctuations. We find no evidence for any contribution from isocurvature perturbations or from cosmic defects. Combining Planck data with other astrophysical data, including Type Ia supernovae, the equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = −1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints on annihilating dark matter and on possible deviations from the standard recombination history. In neither case do we find no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base ΛCDM are in good agreement with baryon acoustic oscillation data and with the JLA sample of Type Ia supernovae. However, as in the 2013 analysis, the amplitude of the fluctuation spectrum is found to be higher than inferred from some analyses of rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. We show that these tensions cannot easily be resolved with simple modifications of the base ΛCDM cosmology. Apart from these tensions, the base ΛCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets.

10,334 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Adam Auton1, Gonçalo R. Abecasis2, David Altshuler3, Richard Durbin4  +514 moreInstitutions (90)
01 Oct 2015-Nature
TL;DR: The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations, and has reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-generation sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping.
Abstract: The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.

9,821 citations

Book
01 Jan 1983
TL;DR: Features include the selection and sampling of cases, the problems of access, observation and interviewing, recording and filing data, and the process of data analysis.
Abstract: Acknowledgements Preface 1. What is ethnography? 2. Research design: problems, cases, and samples 3. Access 4. Field relations 5. Insider Accounts: listening and asking questions 6. Documents 7. Recording and organizing data 8. The process of Analysis 9. Writing Ethnography 10. Ethics References Index

9,348 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
B. P. Abbott1, Richard J. Abbott1, T. D. Abbott2, Matthew Abernathy1  +1008 moreInstitutions (96)
TL;DR: This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger, and these observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems.
Abstract: On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of $1.0 \times 10^{-21}$. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 {\sigma}. The source lies at a luminosity distance of $410^{+160}_{-180}$ Mpc corresponding to a redshift $z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are $36^{+5}_{-4} M_\odot$ and $29^{+4}_{-4} M_\odot$, and the final black hole mass is $62^{+4}_{-4} M_\odot$, with $3.0^{+0.5}_{-0.5} M_\odot c^2$ radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals.These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.

8,011 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Monkol Lek, Konrad J. Karczewski1, Konrad J. Karczewski2, Eric Vallabh Minikel2, Eric Vallabh Minikel1, Kaitlin E. Samocha, Eric Banks2, Timothy Fennell2, Anne H. O’Donnell-Luria3, Anne H. O’Donnell-Luria1, Anne H. O’Donnell-Luria2, James S. Ware, Andrew J. Hill2, Andrew J. Hill1, Andrew J. Hill4, Beryl B. Cummings2, Beryl B. Cummings1, Taru Tukiainen2, Taru Tukiainen1, Daniel P. Birnbaum2, Jack A. Kosmicki, Laramie E. Duncan1, Laramie E. Duncan2, Karol Estrada2, Karol Estrada1, Fengmei Zhao1, Fengmei Zhao2, James Zou2, Emma Pierce-Hoffman2, Emma Pierce-Hoffman1, Joanne Berghout5, David Neil Cooper6, Nicole A. Deflaux7, Mark A. DePristo2, Ron Do, Jason Flannick1, Jason Flannick2, Menachem Fromer, Laura D. Gauthier2, Jackie Goldstein1, Jackie Goldstein2, Namrata Gupta2, Daniel P. Howrigan2, Daniel P. Howrigan1, Adam Kiezun2, Mitja I. Kurki2, Mitja I. Kurki1, Ami Levy Moonshine2, Pradeep Natarajan, Lorena Orozco, Gina M. Peloso1, Gina M. Peloso2, Ryan Poplin2, Manuel A. Rivas2, Valentin Ruano-Rubio2, Samuel A. Rose2, Douglas M. Ruderfer8, Khalid Shakir2, Peter D. Stenson6, Christine Stevens2, Brett Thomas2, Brett Thomas1, Grace Tiao2, María Teresa Tusié-Luna, Ben Weisburd2, Hong-Hee Won9, Dongmei Yu, David Altshuler2, David Altshuler10, Diego Ardissino, Michael Boehnke11, John Danesh12, Stacey Donnelly2, Roberto Elosua, Jose C. Florez2, Jose C. Florez1, Stacey Gabriel2, Gad Getz2, Gad Getz1, Stephen J. Glatt13, Christina M. Hultman14, Sekar Kathiresan, Markku Laakso15, Steven A. McCarroll1, Steven A. McCarroll2, Mark I. McCarthy16, Mark I. McCarthy17, Dermot P.B. McGovern18, Ruth McPherson19, Benjamin M. Neale1, Benjamin M. Neale2, Aarno Palotie, Shaun Purcell8, Danish Saleheen20, Jeremiah M. Scharf, Pamela Sklar, Patrick F. Sullivan14, Patrick F. Sullivan21, Jaakko Tuomilehto22, Ming T. Tsuang23, Hugh Watkins16, Hugh Watkins17, James G. Wilson24, Mark J. Daly1, Mark J. Daly2, Daniel G. MacArthur1, Daniel G. MacArthur2 
18 Aug 2016-Nature
TL;DR: The aggregation and analysis of high-quality exome (protein-coding region) DNA sequence data for 60,706 individuals of diverse ancestries generated as part of the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) provides direct evidence for the presence of widespread mutational recurrence.
Abstract: Large-scale reference data sets of human genetic variation are critical for the medical and functional interpretation of DNA sequence changes. Here we describe the aggregation and analysis of high-quality exome (protein-coding region) DNA sequence data for 60,706 individuals of diverse ancestries generated as part of the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). This catalogue of human genetic diversity contains an average of one variant every eight bases of the exome, and provides direct evidence for the presence of widespread mutational recurrence. We have used this catalogue to calculate objective metrics of pathogenicity for sequence variants, and to identify genes subject to strong selection against various classes of mutation; identifying 3,230 genes with near-complete depletion of predicted protein-truncating variants, with 72% of these genes having no currently established human disease phenotype. Finally, we demonstrate that these data can be used for the efficient filtering of candidate disease-causing variants, and for the discovery of human 'knockout' variants in protein-coding genes.

7,679 citations


Authors

Showing all 34188 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Rob Knight2011061253207
Stephen V. Faraone1881427140298
John J.V. McMurray1781389184502
David R. Williams1782034138789
John Hardy1771178171694
Dorret I. Boomsma1761507136353
Kay-Tee Khaw1741389138782
Anders Björklund16576984268
Edward T. Bullmore165746112463
Peter A. R. Ade1621387138051
Michael John Owen1601110135795
Gavin Davies1592036149835
Suvadeep Bose154960129071
Todd Adams1541866143110
John R. Hodges14981282709
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202282
20214,859
20204,931
20194,464
20184,379
20174,159