About: Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry is a nonprofit organization based out in Tokyo, Japan. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Coal & Electric power system. The organization has 2692 authors who have published 6571 publications receiving 126482 citations. The organization is also known as: CRIEPI.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A long-term global atmospheric reanalysis, named "Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) was completed using the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) numerical assimilation and forecast system.
Abstract: A long-term global atmospheric reanalysis, named “Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25)” was completed using the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) numerical assimilation and forecast system. The analysis covers the period from 1979 to 2004. This is the first long-term reanalysis undertaken in Asia. JMA's latest numerical assimilation system, and specially collected observational data, were used to generate a consistent and high-quality reanalysis dataset designed for climate research and operational monitoring and forecasts. One of the many purposes of JRA-25 is to enhance the analysis to a high quality in the Asian region.Six-hourly data assimilation cycles were performed, producing 6-hourly atmospheric analysis and forecast fields of various physical variables. The global model used in JRA-25 has a spectral resolution of T106 (equivalent to a horizontal grid size of around 120 km) and 40 vertical layers with the top level at 0.4 hPa. In addition to conventional surface and upper air observations, atmospheric motion vector (AMV) wind retrieved from geostationary satellites, brightness temperature from TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), precipitable water retrieved from orbital satellite microwave radiometer radiance and other satellite data are assimilated with three-dimensional variational method (3D-Var). JMA produced daily sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice and three-dimensional ozone profiles for JRA-25. A new quality control method for TOVS data was developed and applied in advance.Many advantages have been found in the JRA-25 reanalysis. Predicted 6-hour global total precipitation distribution and amount are well reproduced both in space and time. The performance of the long time series of the global precipitation is the best among the other reanalyses, with few unrealistic variations from degraded satellite data contaminated by volcanic eruptions. Secondly, JRA-25 is the first reanalysis to assimilate wind profiles around tropical cyclones reconstructed from historical best track information; tropical cyclones were analyzed properly in all the global regions. Additionally, low-level cloud along the subtropical western coast of continents is well simulated and snow depth analysis is also of a good quality. The article also covers material which requires attention when using JRA-25.
TL;DR: In this article, a single-layer urban canopy model was developed, and compared to both multi-layer and slab models, which is a column model of energy and momentum exchange between an urban surface and the atmosphere.
Abstract: We developed a simple, single-layer urban canopy model, and comparedit to both multi-layer and slab models. Our single-layer model has thefollowing features: (a) It is a column model of energy and momentumexchange between an urban surface and the atmosphere, (b) it includesthe influence of street canyons, which are parameterized to representthe urban geometry, (c) it includes shadowing from buildings andreflection of radiation, and (d) it estimates both the surfacetemperatures of, and heat fluxes from, three surface types: roof, wall,and road. In the simulation of the single-layer model, the roof washottest during the daytime, but coolest from midnight to early morning.This is consistent with output from the multi-layer model and fieldobservations at a residential area on a clear, summer day. The diurnalvariation of the energy budget from the single-layer model agrees wellwith that from the multi-layer model. Our single-layer model'sperformance is nearly that of a multi-layer model for studyingmesoscale heat islands. Nevertheless, it is simply parameterized,and thus easily included in larger-scale atmospheric models. The slabmodel has the largest nighttime cooling rate of the three models. Toovercome this, it needs more adjustments than for the canopy models.
TL;DR: There are several hybrid input-output analysis-based LCA methods that can be implemented in practice for broadening system boundary and also for ISO compliance.
Abstract: Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a method for evaluating the environmental impacts of products holistically, including direct and supply chain impacts. The current LCA methodologies and the standards by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) impose practical difficulties for drawing system boundaries; decisions on inclusion or exclusion of processes in an analysis (the cutoff criteria) are typically not made on a scientific basis. In particular, the requirement of deciding which processes could be excluded from the inventory can be rather difficult to meet because many excluded processes have often never been assessed by the practitioner, and therefore, their negligibility cannot be guaranteed. LCA studies utilizing economic input-output analysis have shown that, in practice, excluded processes can contribute as much to the product system under study as included processes; thus, the subjective determination of the system boundary may lead to invalid results. System boundaries in LCA are discussed herein with particular attention to outlining hybrid approaches as methods for resolving the boundary selection problem in LCA. An input-output model can be used to describe at least a part of a product system, and an ISO-compatible system boundary selection procedure can be designed by applying hybrid input-output-assisted approaches. There are several hybrid input-output analysis-based LCA methods that can be implemented in practice for broadening system boundary and also for ISO compliance.
TL;DR: A slacks-based network DEA model is proposed, called Network SBM, that can deal with intermediate products formally and evaluate divisional efficiencies along with the overall efficiency of decision making units (DMUs).
University of Groningen1, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research2, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories3, University of California, San Diego4, University of Tokyo5, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research6, University of East Anglia7, Duke University8, University of California, Santa Barbara9, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution10, University of Western Brittany11, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology12, Rutgers University13, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology14, University of Miami15, Université libre de Bruxelles16, Laval University17, University of British Columbia18, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry19, National Institute for Environmental Studies20, University of Western Australia21, Fisheries and Oceans Canada22
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment.
Abstract: Comparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10–30 μm), medium (30–60 μm), and large (>60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of “dissolved” Fe (filtrate < 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the “dissolved” pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ∼ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of carbon into deeper waters is difficult to assess and is until now firmly proven and quite modest in only two experiments.
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|Gregory D. D. Hurst
|José N. Canongia Lopes
|Agilio A. H. Padua
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