scispace - formally typeset

Institution

Central Tuber Crops Research Institute

FacilityThiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
About: Central Tuber Crops Research Institute is a(n) facility organization based out in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Starch & Fermentation. The organization has 475 authors who have published 587 publication(s) receiving 10285 citation(s).


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The tropical tuber crops contain starch as the major component and thus act as important source of starch. Except cassava and to a smaller extent sweet potato, starch from other tuber crops has not been exploited for industrial applications partly because of difficulty in the extraction of the pure starches and partly because of non-availability of information about the properties of these lesser known starches. This review attempts at collating data available on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of the tropical tuber starches, highlighting their unique properties and potential field of applications. The physicochemical properties like granule shape and size, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, amylose content, or content of non-starchy components, show considerable variation among the tuber starches. In addition, factors like genetic origin, environmental conditions and age of the plant also influence the properties. The starch granules of Colocasia esculenta and Dioscorea esculenta tubers are very small whereas those of Canna edulis are very large. XRD patterns of yam starches are generally ‘B’, while the aroid starches possess ‘A’ patterns. DSC gelatinisation temperatures are low for cassava starch and high for the aroid starches. The functional characteristics like viscosity, swelling power and solubility also depend on a number of factors such as varietal variation, method of extraction, processing conditions and instruments used for analysis. Viscosity is high for cassava and C. edulis starches, but low for most aroid starches. Clarity is good for cassava and yam starches compared to the others. Digestibility also varies among the starches. The diversity available in the tuber starches shows that some of the starches can be used in place of chemically modified starches available on the market. The realisation of their importance can help in value addition of these neglected crops and also provide starch with special properties for specific applications.

436 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fermentation, boiling, and ensiling are efficient techniques for removing cyanide from cassava peels.
Abstract: Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important tropical root crop providing energy to about 500 million people. The presence of the two cyanogenic glycosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, in cassava is a major factor limiting its use as food or feed. Traditional processing techniques practiced in cassava production are known to reduce cyanide in tubers and leaves. Drying is the most ubiquitous processing operation in many tropical countries. Sun drying eliminates more cyanide than oven drying because of the prolonged contact time between linamarase and the glucosides in sun drying. Soaking followed by boiling is better than soaking or boiling alone in removing cyanide. Traditional African food products such as gari and fufu are made by a series of operations such as grating, dewatering, fermenting, and roasting. During the various stages of gari manufacture, 80 to 95% cyanide loss occurs. The best processing method for the use of cassava leaves as human food is pounding the leaves and cooking the mash in water. Fermentation, boiling, and ensiling are efficient techniques for removing cyanide from cassava peels.

150 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The critical analysis of recent literature covering production of cellulase in solid state fermentation using advance technologies such as consolidated bioprocessing, metabolic engineering and strain improvement, and circumscribes the strategies to improve the enzyme yield are summarized.
Abstract: Lignocellulose is the most plentiful non-food biomass and one of the most inexhaustible renewable resources on the planet, which is an alternative sustainable energy source for the production of second generation biofuels. Lignocelluloses are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, in which the sugar polymers account for a large portion of the biomass. Cellulases belong to the glycoside hydrolase family and catalyze the hydrolysis of glyosidic linkages depolymerizing cellulose to fermentable sugars. They are multi-enzymatic complex proteins and require the synergistic action of three key enzymes: endoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.4), exoglucanase (E.C. 3.2.1.176) (E.C. 3.2.1.91) and β-glucosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.21) for the depolymerization of cellulose to glucose. Solid state fermentation, which holds growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free flowing water, has gained considerable attention of late due its several advantages over submerged fermentation. The review summarizes the critical analysis of recent literature covering production of cellulase in solid state fermentation using advance technologies such as consolidated bioprocessing, metabolic engineering and strain improvement, and circumscribes the strategies to improve the enzyme yield.

147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings support the use of Curcuma zedoaria tubers in traditional medicine for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and the first report of the antimicrobial properties ofCurcuma malabarica.
Abstract: The antimicrobial activity of extracts of Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma malabarica tubers was tested against six bacterial and two fungal strains using the agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods. Petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, acetone and ethanol extracts exhibited antibacterial as well as antifungal activity. Acetone and hexane extracts of both tubers showed comparable antimicrobial activity as indicated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, but other extracts of Curcuma malabarica showed significantly lower activity than those of Curcuma zedoaria. The MIC values for different strains and extracts ranged from 0.01 to 0.15 mg/ml in Curcuma zedoaria and from 0.01 to 0.94 mg/ml in Curcuma malabarica. Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) was inhibited by Curcuma malabarica but not by Curcuma zedoaria. This study is the first report of the antimicrobial properties of Curcuma malabarica. The findings also support the use of Curcuma zedoaria tubers in traditional medicine for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.

138 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Cassava starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (EPI) at 45°C for 2 h in three different media which include water, water in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst (PTC) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The products were characterized by determining their physicochemical, thermal and retrogradation properties. In aqueous medium, the use of a PTC, tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) produced derivatives with higher degree of cross-linking than those prepared without the use of the catalyst. The degree of cross-linking was found to be higher using the same concentration of EPI when the reaction was carried out in DMF. At low levels of cross-linking, the peak viscosity of the cross-linked starches increased in comparison to that of the native starch. With increasing degree of cross-linking, the peak viscosity showed a significant reduction. The swelling volume, solubility and light transmittance of the starch pastes were lower for the modified starches. The cross-linked starches showed slightly reduced values for the gelatinization temperatures, Tonset, Tpeak and Tend. The enthalpy of gelatinization of the modified starches increased with increase in the degree of cross-linking. The modified starches exhibited higher water-binding capacities (WBC) than the native starch; but with increase in the degree of cross-linking, there was a gradual decrease in WBC. The in vitro alpha amylase digestibility of the modified starches decreased gradually with increase in the level of cross-linking.

131 citations


Authors
Network Information
Related Institutions (5)
Agricultural University of Athens

6.8K papers, 211.8K citations

79% related

University of Hohenheim

16.4K papers, 567.3K citations

78% related

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

21.3K papers, 748.1K citations

77% related

International Rice Research Institute

5.1K papers, 275.8K citations

77% related

Nanjing Agricultural University

27.3K papers, 546.5K citations

76% related

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
20223
202129
202032
201927
201823
201724