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Chalmers University of Technology

EducationGothenburg, Sweden
About: Chalmers University of Technology is a(n) education organization based out in Gothenburg, Sweden. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Combustion. The organization has 17191 authors who have published 53951 publication(s) receiving 1520592 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Chalmers Tekniska Högskola & Chalmers.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Summary Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57·6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40·8–75·9 million [7·2%, 6·0–8·3]), 45·1 million (29·0–62·8 million [5·6%, 4·0–7·2]), 36·3 million (25·3–50·9 million [4·5%, 3·8–5·3]), 34·7 million (23·0–49·6 million [4·3%, 3·5–5·2]), and 34·1 million (23·5–46·0 million [4·2%, 3·2–5·3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2·7% (95% UI 2·3–3·1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10·4% (95% UI 9·0–11·8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862–11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018–19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-to-date information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health.

8,768 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A 16S rRNA gene database ( addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera screening, standard alignment, and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was found that there is incongruent taxonomic nomenclature among curators even at the phylum level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and in 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages in the Archaea and Bacteria.

8,458 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
23 Jan 2015-Science
Abstract: Resolving the molecular details of proteome variation in the different tissues and organs of the human body will greatly increase our knowledge of human biology and disease. Here, we present a map of the human tissue proteome based on an integrated omics approach that involves quantitative transcriptomics at the tissue and organ level, combined with tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry, to achieve spatial localization of proteins down to the single-cell level. Our tissue-based analysis detected more than 90% of the putative protein-coding genes. We used this approach to explore the human secretome, the membrane proteome, the druggable proteome, the cancer proteome, and the metabolic functions in 32 different tissues and organs. All the data are integrated in an interactive Web-based database that allows exploration of individual proteins, as well as navigation of global expression patterns, in all major tissues and organs in the human body.

6,953 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed functional, which includes van der Waals forces in a seamless fashion, is applied to rare gas and benzene dimers, where it is shown to give a realistic description.
Abstract: A scheme within density functional theory is proposed that provides a practical way to generalize to unrestricted geometries the method applied with some success to layered geometries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 126402 (2003)]]. It includes van der Waals forces in a seamless fashion. By expansion to second order in a carefully chosen quantity contained in the long-range part of the correlation functional, the nonlocal correlations are expressed in terms of a density-density interaction formula. It contains a relatively simple parametrized kernel, with parameters determined by the local density and its gradient. The proposed functional is applied to rare gas and benzene dimers, where it is shown to give a realistic description.

4,252 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article consists of background material and of the basic problem formulation, and introduces spectral-based algorithmic solutions to the signal parameter estimation problem and contrast these suboptimal solutions to parametric methods.
Abstract: The quintessential goal of sensor array signal processing is the estimation of parameters by fusing temporal and spatial information, captured via sampling a wavefield with a set of judiciously placed antenna sensors. The wavefield is assumed to be generated by a finite number of emitters, and contains information about signal parameters characterizing the emitters. A review of the area of array processing is given. The focus is on parameter estimation methods, and many relevant problems are only briefly mentioned. We emphasize the relatively more recent subspace-based methods in relation to beamforming. The article consists of background material and of the basic problem formulation. Then we introduce spectral-based algorithmic solutions to the signal parameter estimation problem. We contrast these suboptimal solutions to parametric methods. Techniques derived from maximum likelihood principles as well as geometric arguments are covered. Later, a number of more specialized research topics are briefly reviewed. Then, we look at a number of real-world problems for which sensor array processing methods have been applied. We also include an example with real experimental data involving closely spaced emitters and highly correlated signals, as well as a manufacturing application example.

3,984 citations


Showing all 17191 results

Jens Nielsen1491752104005
Frede Blaabjerg1472161112017
Galen D. Stucky144958101796
Naomi J. Halas14043582040
Peter Nordlander13048267703
Yuri S. Kivshar126184579415
Henrik Zetterberg125173672452
Christoph J. Brabec12089668188
Mathias Uhlén11786168387
Anders Ekbom11661351430
Flemming Besenbacher11472851827
Olle Inganäs11362750562
Philip Hugenholtz10945275841
Licheng Sun10674749992
Ralf P. Richter10566145214
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