Chaminade University of Honolulu
Education•Honolulu, Hawaii, United States•
About: Chaminade University of Honolulu is a(n) education organization based out in Honolulu, Hawaii, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Experiential learning. The organization has 164 authors who have published 223 publication(s) receiving 5381 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is reported that drugs that disrupt the autophagy pathway dramatically augment the antineoplastic effects of SAHA in CML cell lines and primary CML cells expressing wild-type and imatinib-resistant mutant forms of Bcr-Abl, including T315I.
Abstract: Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to address the emerging problem of imatinib resistance. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is being evaluated for imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and has multiple cellular effects, including the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. Considering that autophagy may promote cancer cell survival, we hypothesized that disrupting autophagy would augment the anticancer activity of SAHA. Here we report that drugs that disrupt the autophagy pathway dramatically augment the antineoplastic effects of SAHA in CML cell lines and primary CML cells expressing wild-type and imatinib-resistant mutant forms of Bcr-Abl, including T315I. This regimen has selectivity for malignant cells and its efficacy was not diminished by impairing p53 function, another contributing factor in imatinib resistance. Disrupting autophagy by chloroquine treatment enhances SAHA-induced superoxide generation, triggers relocalization and marked increases in the lysosomal protease cathepsin D, and reduces the expression of the cathepsin-D substrate thioredoxin. Finally, knockdown of cathepsin D diminishes the potency of this combination, demonstrating its role as a mediator of this therapeutic response. Our data suggest that, when combined with HDAC inhibitors, agents that disrupt autophagy are a promising new strategy to treat imatinib-refractory patients who fail conventional therapy.
01 Jan 2011-Alzheimers & Dementia
TL;DR: Although some decline was observed in the Minnesota cohort, no statistically significant trends were apparent in the community studies, and a significant reduction in cognitive impairment measured by neuropsychological testing was identified in the national survey.
Abstract: Declines in heart disease and stroke mortality rates are conventionally attributed to reductions in cigarette smoking, recognition and treatment of hypertension and diabetes, effective medications to improve serum lipid levels and to reduce clot formation, and general lifestyle improvements. Recent evidence implicates these and other cerebrovascular factors in the development of a substantial proportion of dementia cases. Analyses were undertaken to determine whether corresponding declines in age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment have occurred in recent years. Data spanning 1 or 2 decades were examined from community-based epidemiological studies in Minnesota, Illinois, and Indiana, and from the Health and Retirement Study, which is a national survey. Although some decline was observed in the Minnesota cohort, no statistically significant trends were apparent in the community studies. A significant reduction in cognitive impairment measured by neuropsychological testing was identified in the national survey. Cautious optimism appears justified.
TL;DR: A suite of bacterial and fungal groups that contribute to nitrogen cycling and a reproducible network of decomposers that emerge on predictable time scales are found.
Abstract: Vertebrate corpse decomposition provides an important stage in nutrient cycling in most terrestrial habitats, yet microbially mediated processes are poorly understood. Here we combine deep microbial community characterization, community-level metabolic reconstruction, and soil biogeochemical assessment to understand the principles governing microbial community assembly during decomposition of mouse and human corpses on different soil substrates. We find a suite of bacterial and fungal groups that contribute to nitrogen cycling and a reproducible network of decomposers that emerge on predictable time scales. Our results show that this decomposer community is derived primarily from bulk soil, but key decomposers are ubiquitous in low abundance. Soil type was not a dominant factor driving community development, and the process of decomposition is sufficiently reproducible to offer new opportunities for forensic investigations.
TL;DR: Analysis of population genetic structure among four species of sea urchins in the tropical Indo‐West Pacific shows that all four species have accumulated mtDNA differences over similar spatial and temporal scales but that the precise geographic pattern of genetic differentiation varies for each species.
Abstract: Unlike populations of many terrestrial species, marine populations often are not separated by obvious, permanent barriers to gene flow. When species have high dispersal potential and few barriers to gene flow, allopatric divergence is slow. Nevertheless, many marine species are of recent origin, even in taxa with high dispersal potential. To understand the relationship between genetic structure and recent species formation in high dispersal taxa, we examined population genetic structure among four species of sea urchins in the tropical Indo-West Pacific that have speciated within the past one to three million years. Despite high potential for gene flow, mtDNA sequence variation among 200 individuals of four species in the urchin genus Echinometra shows a signal of strong geographic effects. These effects include (1) substantial population heterogeneity; (2) lower genetic variation in peripheral populations; and (3) isolation by distance. These geographic patterns are especially strong across scales of 5000-10,000 km, and are weaker over scales of 2500-5000 km. As a result, strong geographic patterns would not have been readily visible except over the wide expanse of the tropical Pacific. Surface currents in the Pacific do not explain patterns of gene flow any better than do patterns of simple spatial proximity. Finally, populations of each species tend to group into large mtDNA regions with similar mtDNA haplotypes, but these regional boundaries are not concordant in different species. These results show that all four species have accumulated mtDNA differences over similar spatial and temporal scales but that the precise geographic pattern of genetic differentiation varies for each species. These geographic patterns appear much less deterministic than in other well-known coastal marine systems and may be driven by chance and historical accident.
TL;DR: It is shown that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days, and suggested that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI.
Abstract: Our bodies—especially our skin, our saliva, the lining of our mouth and our gastrointestinal tract—are home to a diverse collection of bacteria and other microorganisms called the microbiome. While the roles played by many of these microorganisms have yet to be identified, it is known that they contribute to the health and wellbeing of their host by metabolizing indigestible compounds, producing essential vitamins, and preventing the growth of harmful bacteria. They are important for nutrient and carbon cycling in the environment. The advent of advanced sequencing techniques has made it feasible to study the composition of this microbial community, and to monitor how it changes over time or how it responds to events such as antibiotic treatment. Sequencing studies have been used to highlight the significant differences between microbial communities found in different parts of the body, and to follow the evolution of the gut microbiome from birth. Most of these studies have focused on live animals, so little is known about what happens to the microbiome after its host dies. In particular, it is not known if the changes that occur after death are similar for all individuals. Moreover, the decomposing animal supplies nutrients and carbon to the surrounding ecosystem, but its influence on the microbial community of its immediate environment is not well understood. Now Metcalf et al. have used high-throughput sequencing to study the bacteria and other microorganisms (such as nematodes and fungi) in dead and decomposing mice, and also in the soil beneath them, over the course of 48 days. The changes were significant and also consistent across the corpses, with the microbial communities in the corpses influencing those in the soil, and vice versa. Metcalf et al. also showed that these measurements could be used to estimate the postmortem interval (the time since death) to within approximately 3 days, which suggests that the work could have applications in forensic science.
Showing all 164 results
|David O. Carter||28||70||2978|
|Alexander J. Stokes||22||45||3059|
|Michael R. Dohm||14||18||1145|
|George S. Vozikis||13||33||602|
|Henry G. Trapido-Rosenthal||13||18||801|
|Christopher A. McNally||12||19||496|
|Lori M. N. Shimoda||12||21||587|
|Richard M. Alvey||11||11||647|
|M. Lee Goff||9||11||432|
|Paulo S. Martins||8||66||176|
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