About: Chang'an University is a education organization based out in Xi'an, China. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Asphalt & Groundwater. The organization has 18415 authors who have published 15102 publications receiving 125436 citations. The organization is also known as: Cháng'ān Dàxué & Changan University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The results indicate that, in comparison with Chinese soil, urban dusts in Xi'an have elevated metal concentrations as a whole, except those of arsenic and manganese, which are comparable to those in other studies.
Abstract: Though there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of urban dusts in developed countries, little attention has been paid to this kind of study in developing countries, including China. Therefore, a series of investigations were performed to provide heavy metal signatures of urban dusts and to evaluate potential sources in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. Sixty-five samples of urban dusts were collected in Xi'an. Then Ag, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and As, Hg and Sb concentrations by atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicate that, in comparison with Chinese soil, urban dusts in Xi'an have elevated metal concentrations as a whole, except those of arsenic and manganese. These concentration levels are comparable to those in other studies. Correlation coefficient analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were performed and three main sources with corresponding cluster elements were identified: (1) Ag and Hg have commercial and domestic sources; (2) Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn are mainly derived from industrial sources, combined with traffic sources as well for Pb and Zn; (3) As and Mn come mainly from soil sources, and As also has an industrial source. Based on PCA and CA analyses, manganese was selected as the reference element, and heavy metal enrichment factors (Efs) were calculated, which in turn further confirms the source identification. Also, Efs give an insight of human influence degree of urban dusts.
TL;DR: Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in China indicate that crustal shortening accommodates most of India's penetration into Eurasia, but the Tibetan plateau south of the Kunlun and Ganzi-Mani faults is moving eastward relative to both India and Eurasia.
Abstract: Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in China indicate that crustal shortening accommodates most of India's penetration into Eurasia. Deformation within the Tibetan Plateau and its margins, the Himalaya, the Altyn Tagh, and the Qilian Shan, absorbs more than 90% of the relative motion between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Internal shortening of the Tibetan plateau itself accounts for more than one-third of the total convergence. However, the Tibetan plateau south of the Kunlun and Ganzi-Mani faults is moving eastward relative to both India and Eurasia. This movement is accommodated through rotation of material around the eastern Syntaxis. The North China and South China blocks, east of the Tibetan Plateau, move coherently east-southeastward at rates of 2 to 8 millimeters per year and 6 to 11 millimeters per year, respectively, with respect to the stable Eurasia.
01 Sep 2016
TL;DR: Assessment of groundwater quality in an alluvial plain in China reveals that most of the water samples are generally suitable for irrigation purpose, but over 60 % of them are not fit for drinking, and the total hardness, NO3−, NO2−, TDS, SO42−, and F− are the main contaminants affecting its suitability for drinking purpose.
Abstract: Intensive human activities have caused contamination to groundwater quality which consequently affects human health. In this study, an evaluation of groundwater quality was carried out for better understanding of the status of groundwater contamination and potential risks to local residents in an alluvial plain (China) where agricultural and industrial activities are intensive. Comprehensive water quality index was used for drinking water-quality assessment and sodium adsorption ratio, Na%, and residual sodium carbonate were applied for irrigation water-quality assessment. The human health risks caused by intake of the contaminated groundwater through the oral and dermal pathways were also assessed. The assessment results reveal that most of the water samples are generally suitable for irrigation purpose, but over 60 % of them are not fit for drinking, and the total hardness, NO3 −, NO2 −, TDS, SO4 2−, and F− are the main contaminants affecting its suitability for drinking purpose. Residents in the study area are at high health risk, and NO3 − originating mainly from industrial and agricultural pollution is the greatest contributory cause of the health risks. Furthermore, children in this area are at higher health risk than adults, and oral ingestion is the dominate exposure pathway of health risk. Therefore, urgent and efficient measures must be taken to combat groundwater pollution and reduce health risk in the area.
TL;DR: In this article, the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of the compression ignition engine of a diesel and biodiesel engine were analyzed, and the results showed that biodiesel exhibited similar combustion stages to that of diesel, however, biodiesel showed an earlier start of combustion.
Abstract: In this study, the biodiesel produced from soybean crude oil was prepared by a method of alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. The important properties of biodiesel were compared with those of diesel. Diesel and biodiesel were used as fuels in the compression ignition engine, and its performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of the engine were analyzed. The results showed that biodiesel exhibited the similar combustion stages to that of diesel, however, biodiesel showed an earlier start of combustion. At lower engine loads, the peak cylinder pressure, the peak rate of pressure rise and the peak of heat release rate during premixed combustion phase were higher for biodiesel than for diesel. At higher engine loads, the peak cylinder pressure of biodiesel was almost similar to that of diesel, but the peak rate of pressure rise and the peak of heat release rate were lower for biodiesel. The power output of biodiesel was almost identical with that of diesel. The brake specific fuel consumption was higher for biodiesel due to its lower heating value. Biodiesel provided significant reduction in CO, HC, NO x and smoke under speed characteristic at full engine load. Based on this study, biodiesel can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engine.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of biodiesel addition to diesel fuel on the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a naturally-aspirated DI compression ignition engine were examined, and a minor increase in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and decrease in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for biodiesel and its blends were observed compared with diesel fuel.
Abstract: Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that can be produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. It is an oxygenated, non-toxic, sulphur-free, biodegradable, and renewable fuel and can be used in diesel engines without significant modification. However, the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics will be different for the same biodiesel used in different types of engine. In this study, the biodiesel produced from soybean crude oil was prepared by a method of alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. The effects of biodiesel addition to diesel fuel on the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a naturally aspirated DI compression ignition engine were examined. Biodiesel has different properties from diesel fuel. A minor increase in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and decrease in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for biodiesel and its blends were observed compared with diesel fuel. The significant improvement in reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke were found for biodiesel and its blends at high engine loads. Hydrocarbon (HC) had no evident variation for all tested fuels. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) were slightly higher for biodiesel and its blends. Biodiesel and its blends exhibited similar combustion stages to diesel fuel. The use of transesterified soybean crude oil can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification.
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|Simon A. Wilde||118||390||45547|
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