About: Chiba Institute of Science is a education organization based out in Chiba, Japan. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Spermidine & Endoplasmic reticulum. The organization has 315 authors who have published 639 publications receiving 13074 citations. The organization is also known as: Chiba kagaku daigaku.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The major focus on this review is on the role of polyamines in protein synthesis, and effects of polyamine oxidases on B to Z conversion of DNA, transcription, phosphorylation of proteins, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and ion channels.
Abstract: Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are essential for normal cell growth. The polyamine levels in cells are regulated by biosynthesis, degradation, and transport. Polyamines can modulate the functions of DNA, nucleotide triphosphates, proteins, and especially RNA because most polyamines exist in a polyamine-RNA complex in cells. Thus, the major focus on this review is on the role of polyamines in protein synthesis. In addition, effects of polyamines on B to Z conversion of DNA, transcription, phosphorylation of proteins, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and ion channels, especially NMDA receptors, are outlined. The function of eIF5A is also briefly discussed. Finally, a correlation between acrolein, produced from polyamines by polyamine oxidases, and chronic renal failure or brain stroke is summarized. Increased levels of polyamine oxidases and acrolein are good markers of chronic renal failure and brain stroke.
TL;DR: A novel nomenclature and classification of mammalian carboxylesterases on the basis of molecular properties is proposed to allay the confusion of the classic classification of car boxylesterase isozymes.
Abstract: This review covers current developments in molecular-based studies of the structure and function of carboxylesterases. To allay the confusion of the classic classification of carboxylesterase isozymes, we have proposed a novel nomenclature and classification of mammalian carboxylesterases on the basis of molecular properties. In addition, mechanisms of regulation of gene expression of carboxylesterases by xenobiotics and involvement of carboxylesterase in drug metabolism and enzyme induction are also described.
TL;DR: Easi-CRISPR solves the major problem of animal genome engineering, namely the inefficiency of targeted DNA cassette insertion, as treating an average of only 50 zygotes is sufficient to produce a correctly targeted allele in up to 100% of live offspring.
Abstract: Conditional knockout mice and transgenic mice expressing recombinases, reporters, and inducible transcriptional activators are key for many genetic studies and comprise over 90% of mouse models created. Conditional knockout mice are generated using labor-intensive methods of homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and are available for only ~25% of all mouse genes. Transgenic mice generated by random genomic insertion approaches pose problems of unreliable expression, and thus there is a need for targeted-insertion models. Although CRISPR-based strategies were reported to create conditional and targeted-insertion alleles via one-step delivery of targeting components directly to zygotes, these strategies are quite inefficient. Here we describe Easi-CRISPR (Efficient additions with ssDNA inserts-CRISPR), a targeting strategy in which long single-stranded DNA donors are injected with pre-assembled crRNA + tracrRNA + Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (ctRNP) complexes into mouse zygotes. We show for over a dozen loci that Easi-CRISPR generates correctly targeted conditional and insertion alleles in 8.5–100% of the resulting live offspring. Easi-CRISPR solves the major problem of animal genome engineering, namely the inefficiency of targeted DNA cassette insertion. The approach is robust, succeeding for all tested loci. It is versatile, generating both conditional and targeted insertion alleles. Finally, it is highly efficient, as treating an average of only 50 zygotes is sufficient to produce a correctly targeted allele in up to 100% of live offspring. Thus, Easi-CRISPR offers a comprehensive means of building large-scale Cre-LoxP animal resources.
TL;DR: Experimentation for an understanding of detailed substrate specificity of prodrugs for CES isozymes and its hydrolysates will help to design the ideal pro drugs.
Abstract: Mammalian carboxylesterases (CESs) comprise a multigene family whose gene products play important roles in biotransformation of ester- or amide-type prodrugs. They are members of an α,β-hydrolase-fold family and are found in various mammals. It has been suggested that CESs can be classified into five major groups denominated CES1-CES5, according to the homology of the amino acid sequence, and the majority of CESs that have been identified belong to the CES1 or CES2 family. The substrate specificities of CES1 and CES2 are significantly different. The CES1 isozyme mainly hydrolyzes a substrate with a small alcohol group and large acyl group, but its wide active pocket sometimes allows it to act on structurally distinct compounds of either a large or small alcohol moiety. In contrast, the CES2 isozyme recognizes a substrate with a large alcohol group and small acyl group, and its substrate specificity may be restricted by the capability of acyl-enzyme conjugate formation due to the presence of conformational interference in the active pocket. Since pharmacokinetic and pharmacological data for prodrugs obtained from preclinical experiments using various animals are generally used as references for human studies, it is important to clarify the biochemical properties of CES isozymes. Further experimentation for an understanding of detailed substrate specificity of prodrugs for CES isozymes and its hydrolysates will help us to design the ideal prodrugs.
TL;DR: A massive species diversity is uncovered and a novel subclade in environmental samples collected worldwide is revealed and the classification of species in the genus Leptospira is redefined.
Abstract: The causative agents of leptospirosis are responsible for an emerging zoonotic disease worldwide. One of the major routes of transmission for leptospirosis is the natural environment contaminated with the urine of a wide range of reservoir animals. Soils and surface waters also host a high diversity of non-pathogenic Leptospira and species for which the virulence status is not clearly established. The genus Leptospira is currently divided into 35 species classified into three phylogenetic clusters, which supposedly correlate with the virulence of the bacteria. In this study, a total of 90 Leptospira strains isolated from different environments worldwide including Japan, Malaysia, New Caledonia, Algeria, mainland France, and the island of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean were sequenced. A comparison of average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of genomes of the 90 isolates and representative genomes of known species revealed 30 new Leptospira species. These data also supported the existence of two clades and 4 subclades. To avoid classification that strongly implies assumption on the virulence status of the lineages, we called them P1, P2, S1, S2. One of these subclades has not yet been described and is composed of Leptospira idonii and 4 novel species that are phylogenetically related to the saprophytes. We then investigated genome diversity and evolutionary relationships among members of the genus Leptospira by studying the pangenome and core gene sets. Our data enable the identification of genome features, genes and domains that are important for each subclade, thereby laying the foundation for refining the classification of this complex bacterial genus. We also shed light on atypical genomic features of a group of species that includes the species often associated with human infection, suggesting a specific and ongoing evolution of this group of species that will require more attention. In conclusion, we have uncovered a massive species diversity and revealed a novel subclade in environmental samples collected worldwide and we have redefined the classification of species in the genus. The implication of several new potentially infectious Leptospira species for human and animal health remains to be determined but our data also provide new insights into the emergence of virulence in the pathogenic species.
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