scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Institution

Chonbuk National University

EducationJeonju, South Korea
About: Chonbuk National University is a education organization based out in Jeonju, South Korea. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Apoptosis & Nanofiber. The organization has 14820 authors who have published 28884 publications receiving 554131 citations.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4  +2519 moreInstitutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

5,187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These guidelines are presented for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

4,316 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a Brookfield rotating viscometer to measure the viscosities of the dispersed fluids with γ-alumina (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles at a 10% volume concentration.
Abstract: Turbulent friction and heat transfer behaviors of dispersed fluids (i.e., uttrafine metallic oxide particles suspended in water) in a circular pipe were investigated experimentally. Viscosity measurements were also conducted using a Brookfield rotating viscometer. Two different metallic oxide particles, γ-alumina (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), with mean diameters of 13 and 27 nm, respectively, were used as suspended particles. The Reynolds and Prandtl numbers varied in the ranges l04-I05 and 6.5-12.3, respectively. The viscosities of the dispersed fluids with γ-Al2O3 and TiO2 particles at a 10% volume concentration were approximately 200 and 3 times greater than that of water, respectively. These viscosity results were significantly larger than the predictions from the classical theory of suspension rheology. Darcy friction factors for the dispersed fluids of the volume concentration ranging from 1% to 3% coincided well with Kays' correlation for turbulent flow of a single-phase fluid. The Nusselt n...

3,730 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the structure, preparation and properties of polymer/graphene nanocomposites are discussed in general along with detailed examples drawn from the scientific literature, and the percolation threshold can be achieved at a very lower filler loading.

2,999 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The RENO experiment has observed the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos, consistent with neutrino oscillations, with a significance of 4.9 standard deviations.
Abstract: The RENO experiment has observed the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos, consistent with neutrino oscillations, with a significance of 4.9 standard deviations. Antineutrinos from six $2.8\text{ }\text{ }{\mathrm{GW}}_{\mathrm{th}}$ reactors at the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant in Korea, are detected by two identical detectors located at 294 and 1383 m, respectively, from the reactor array center. In the 229 d data-taking period between 11 August 2011 and 26 March 2012, the far (near) detector observed 17102 (154088) electron antineutrino candidate events with a background fraction of 5.5% (2.7%). The ratio of observed to expected numbers of antineutrinos in the far detector is $0.920\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.009(\mathrm{stat})\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.014(\mathrm{syst})$. From this deficit, we determine ${sin }^{2}2{\ensuremath{\theta}}_{13}=0.113\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.013(\mathrm{stat})\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.019(\mathrm{syst})$ based on a rate-only analysis.

1,979 citations


Authors

Showing all 14943 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Hyun-Chul Kim1764076183227
Andrew Ivanov142181297390
Dong-Chul Son138137098686
C. Haber135150798014
Tae Jeong Kim132142093959
Alessandro Cerri1291244103225
Paul M. Vanhoutte12786862177
Jason Nielsen12589372688
Chi Lin1251313102710
Paul Lujan123125576799
Young Hee Lee122116861107
Min Suk Kim11997566214
Alexandre Sakharov11958256771
Yang-Kook Sun11778158912
Rui L. Reis115160863223
Network Information
Related Institutions (5)
Kyungpook National University
42.1K papers, 834.6K citations

98% related

Korea University
82.4K papers, 1.8M citations

97% related

Hanyang University
58.8K papers, 1.1M citations

97% related

Seoul National University
138.7K papers, 3.7M citations

97% related

Sungkyunkwan University
56.4K papers, 1.3M citations

97% related

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202366
2022203
20212,069
20201,883
20191,798
20181,893