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Chulalongkorn University

EducationBangkok, Thailand
About: Chulalongkorn University is a education organization based out in Bangkok, Thailand. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Catalysis. The organization has 20156 authors who have published 34324 publications receiving 647815 citations. The organization is also known as: Chula & CU.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, results from searches for the standard model Higgs boson in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV in the CMS experiment at the LHC, using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 5.8 standard deviations.

8,857 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4  +2519 moreInstitutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

5,187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Eugenia E. Calle1, Clark W. Heath1, R. J. Coates2, Jonathan M. Liff2  +191 moreInstitutions (45)
TL;DR: Of the many factors examined that might affect the relation between breast cancer risk and use of HRT, only a woman's weight and body-mass index had a material effect: the increase in the relative risk of breast cancer diagnosed in women using HRT and associated with long durations of use in current and recent users was greater for women of lower than of higher weight or body- mass index.

2,343 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Significant differences in the relation of psychosocial factors to risk of myocardial infarction in 24767 people from 52 countries were found, suggesting that approaches aimed at modifying these factors should be developed.

2,110 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Testing the hypothesis that complex fractionated electrograms recorded during atrial fibrillation could be used as target sites for catheter ablation of AF found areas with CFAEs represent a defined electrophysiologic substrate and are ideal target Sites for ablations to eliminate AF and maintain normal sinus rhythm.

2,021 citations


Showing all 20241 results

Paul M. Thompson1832271146736
P. Chang1702154151783
Y. B. Hsiung138125894278
Shu Li136100178390
Yueh-Feng Liu13183174698
Rong-Shyang Lu130125282241
Peter Tugwell129948125480
Francesco Fiori128103276699
Devdatta Majumder12799576105
Y. H. Chang12683273480
Henrik Zetterberg125173672452
Kittikul Kovitanggoon12368462206
Chayanit Asawatangtrakuldee123108671857
Xin Shi12076464202
Gurpreet Singh12077464989
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No. of papers from the Institution in previous years