Education•Cleveland, Ohio, United States•
About: Cleveland State University is a education organization based out in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Heat transfer. The organization has 5686 authors who have published 12574 publications receiving 303570 citations. The organization is also known as: CSU.
Topics: Population, Heat transfer, Boundary layer, Active disturbance rejection control, Control theory
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Discovery of a relationship between gut-flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for the development of new diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease.
Abstract: Metabolomics studies hold promise for the discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Here we used a metabolomics approach to generate unbiased small-molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine—choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine—were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort. Dietary supplementation of mice with choline, TMAO or betaine promoted upregulation of multiple macrophage scavenger receptors linked to atherosclerosis, and supplementation with choline or TMAO promoted atherosclerosis. Studies using germ-free mice confirmed a critical role for dietary choline and gut flora in TMAO production, augmented macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Suppression of intestinal microflora in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibited dietary-choline-enhanced atherosclerosis. Genetic variations controlling expression of flavin monooxygenases, an enzymatic source of TMAO, segregated with atherosclerosis in hyperlipidaemic mice. Discovery of a relationship between gut-flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for the development of new diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease.
TL;DR: This paper discusses natural biogeography and its mathematics, and then discusses how it can be used to solve optimization problems, and sees that BBO has features in common with other biology-based optimization methods, such as GAs and particle swarm optimization (PSO).
Abstract: Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. Mathematical equations that govern the distribution of organisms were first discovered and developed during the 1960s. The mindset of the engineer is that we can learn from nature. This motivates the application of biogeography to optimization problems. Just as the mathematics of biological genetics inspired the development of genetic algorithms (GAs), and the mathematics of biological neurons inspired the development of artificial neural networks, this paper considers the mathematics of biogeography as the basis for the development of a new field: biogeography-based optimization (BBO). We discuss natural biogeography and its mathematics, and then discuss how it can be used to solve optimization problems. We see that BBO has features in common with other biology-based optimization methods, such as GAs and particle swarm optimization (PSO). This makes BBO applicable to many of the same types of problems that GAs and PSO are used for, namely, high-dimension problems with multiple local optima. However, BBO also has some features that are unique among biology-based optimization methods. We demonstrate the performance of BBO on a set of 14 standard benchmarks and compare it with seven other biology-based optimization algorithms. We also demonstrate BBO on a real-world sensor selection problem for aircraft engine health estimation.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary l-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice, and intestinal microbiota may contribute to the well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and CVD risk.
Abstract: Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary L-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of L-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO concentration and dietary status. Plasma L-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary L-carnitine supplementation in mice altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA and TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but this did not occur if intestinal microbiota was concurrently suppressed. In mice with an intact intestinal microbiota, dietary supplementation with TMAO or either carnitine or choline reduced in vivo reverse cholesterol transport. Intestinal microbiota may thus contribute to the well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and CVD risk.
TL;DR: A content analysis of 200 studies utilizing content analysis published in the communication literature between 1994 and 1998 is used to characterize practices in the field and demonstrate that mass communication researchers often fail to assess (or at least report) intercoder reliability and often rely on percent agreement, an overly liberal index.
Abstract: As a method specifically intended for the study of messages, content analysis is fundamental to mass communication research. Intercoder reliability, more specifically termed intercoder agreement, is a measure of the extent to which independent judges make the same coding decisions in evaluating the characteristics of messages, and is at the heart of this method. Yet there are few standard and accessible guidelines available regarding the appropriate procedures to use to assess and report intercoder reliability, or software tools to calculate it. As a result, it seems likely that there is little consistency in how this critical element of content analysis is assessed and reported in published mass communication studies. Following a review of relevant concepts, indices, and tools, a content analysis of 200 studies utilizing content analysis published in the communication literature between 1994 and 1998 is used to characterize practices in the field. The results demonstrate that mass communication researchers often fail to assess (or at least report) intercoder reliability and often rely on percent agreement, an overly liberal index. Based on the review and these results, concrete guidelines are offered regarding procedures for assessment and reporting of this important aspect of content analysis.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify and consolidate various supply chain initiatives and factors to develop key SCM constructs conducive to advancing the field and synthesize the large, fragmented body of work dispersed across many disciplines.
Abstract: Rising international cooperation, vertical disintegration, along with a focus on core activities have led to the notion that firms are links in a networked supply chain. This novel perspective has created the challenge of designing and managing a network of interdependent relationships developed and fostered through strategic collaboration. Although research interests in supply chain management (SCM) are growing, no research has been directed towards a systematic development of SCM instruments. This study identifies and consolidates various supply chain initiatives and factors to develop key SCM constructs conducive to advancing the field. To this end, we analyzed over 400 articles and synthesized the large, fragmented body of work dispersed across many disciplines. The result of this study, through successive stages of measurement analysis and refinement, is a set of reliable, valid, and unidimensional measurements that can be subsequently used in different contexts to refine or extend conceptualization and measurements or to test various theoretical models, paving the way for theory building in SCM. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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|Stanley L. Hazen||123||495||59307|
|Kenneth G. Mann||103||480||35417|
|Patrick M. McCarthy||98||635||40741|
|Dennis J. Stuehr||91||288||34821|
|Roy L. Silverstein||83||215||25558|
|Catherine E. Costello||82||411||24811|
|Peter R. Cavanagh||81||231||20851|
|Bruce D. Trapp||80||200||29365|
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