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Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit

FacilityCambridge, United Kingdom
About: Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit is a(n) facility organization based out in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Cognition & Semantic memory. The organization has 801 authors who have published 3055 publication(s) receiving 257962 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The opportunities and challenges associated with large, longitudinal phenotypically rich data sets available for reuse, provide an overview of particularly valuable resources available to the field, and recommend best practices to improve the rigor and transparency of analyses conducted on large, secondary data sets.
Abstract: Adolescence is a period of rapid change, with cognitive, mental wellbeing, environmental biological factors interacting to shape lifelong outcomes. Large, longitudinal phenotypically rich data sets available for reuse (secondary data) have revolutionized the way we study adolescence, allowing the field to examine these unfolding processes across hundreds or even thousands of individuals. Here, we outline the opportunities and challenges associated with such secondary data sets, provide an overview of particularly valuable resources available to the field, and recommend best practices to improve the rigor and transparency of analyses conducted on large, secondary data sets.

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2022-Cortex
Abstract: Classical executive tasks, such as Wisconsin card-sorting and verbal fluency, are widely used as tests of frontal lobe control functions. Since the pioneering work of Shallice and Burgess (1991), it has been known that complex, naturalistic tasks can capture deficits that are missed in these classical tests. Matching this finding, deficits in several classical tasks are predicted by loss of fluid intelligence, linked to damage in a specific cortical “multiple-demand” (MD) network, while deficits in a more naturalistic task are not. To expand on these previous results, we examined the effect of focal brain lesions on three new tests – a modification of the previously-used Hotel task, a new test of task switching after extended delays, and a test of decision-making in imagined real-life scenarios. As potential predictors of impairment we measured volume of damage to a priori MD and default mode (DMN) networks, as well as cortical damage outside these networks. Deficits in the three new tasks were substantial, but were not explained by loss of fluid intelligence, or by volume of damage to either MD or DMN networks. Instead, deficits were associated with diverse lesions, and not strongly correlated with one another. The results confirm that naturalistic tasks capture cognitive deficits beyond those measured by fluid intelligence. We suggest, however, that these deficits may not arise from specific control operations required by complex behaviour. Instead, like everyday activities, complex tasks combine a rich variety of interacting cognitive components, bringing many opportunities for processing to be disturbed.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Neuroimaging has revealed robust interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus when people stop memory retrieval. Efforts to stop retrieval can arise when people encounter reminders to unpleasant thoughts they prefer not to think about. Retrieval stopping suppresses hippocampal and amygdala activity, especially when cues elicit aversive memory intrusions, via a broad inhibitory control capacity enabling prepotent response suppression. Repeated retrieval stopping reduces intrusions of unpleasant memories and diminishes their affective tone, outcomes resembling those achieved by the extinction of conditioned emotional responses. Despite this resemblance, the role of inhibitory fronto-hippocampal interactions and retrieval stopping broadly in extinction has received little attention. Here we integrate human and animal research on extinction and retrieval stopping. We argue that reconceptualising extinction to integrate mnemonic inhibitory control with learning would yield a greater understanding of extinction's relevance to mental health. We hypothesize that fear extinction spontaneously engages retrieval stopping across species, and that controlled suppression of hippocampal and amygdala activity by the prefrontal cortex reduces fearful thoughts. Moreover, we argue that retrieval stopping recruits extinction circuitry to achieve affect regulation, linking extinction to how humans cope with intrusive thoughts. We discuss novel hypotheses derived from this theoretical synthesis.

3 citations

Posted ContentDOI
02 Dec 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Background: Social isolation is strongly associated with poor mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing social restrictions disrupted young people's social interactions and resulted in several periods during which school closures necessitated online learning. We hypothesise that digitally excluded young people would demonstrate greater deterioration in their mental health than their digitally connected peers during this time. Methods: We analysed representative mental health data from a sample of UK 10-15-year-olds (N = 1387); Understanding Society collected the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in 2017-19 and thrice during the pandemic (July 2020, November 2020 and March 2021). We employed cross-sectional methods and longitudinal latent growth curve modelling to describe trajectories of adolescent mental health for participants with and without access to a computer or a good internet connection for schoolwork. Outcomes: Adolescent mental health had a quadratic trajectory during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the highest mean Total Difficulties score around December 2020. The worsening and recovery of mental health during the pandemic was greatly pronounced among those without access to a computer, although we did not find evidence for a similar effect among those without a good internet connection. Interpretation: Digital exclusion, as indicated by lack of access to a computer, is a tractable risk factor that likely compounds other adversities facing children and young people during periods of social isolation. Funding: British Psychological Society; School of the Biological Sciences, University of Cambridge; NIHR Applied Research Centre; Medical Research Council; Economic and Social Research Council; and Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: How does brain activity in distributed semantic brain networks evolve over time, and how do these regions interact to retrieve the meaning of words? We compared spatiotemporal brain dynamics between visual lexical and semantic decision tasks (LD and SD), analysing whole-cortex evoked responses and spectral functional connectivity (coherence) in source-estimated electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG) recordings. Our evoked analysis revealed generally larger activation for SD compared to LD, starting in primary visual area (PVA) and angular gyrus (AG), followed by left posterior temporal cortex (PTC) and left anterior temporal lobe (ATL). The earliest activation effects in ATL were significantly left-lateralised. Our functional connectivity results showed significant connectivity between left and right ATL and PTC and right ATL in an early time window, as well as between left ATL and IFG in a later time window. The connectivity of AG was comparatively sparse. We quantified the limited spatial resolution of our source estimates via a leakage index for careful interpretation of our results. Our findings suggest that the different demands on semantic information retrieval in lexical and semantic decision tasks first modulate visual and attentional processes, then multimodal semantic information retrieval in the ATLs and finally control regions (PTC and IFG) in order to extract task-relevant semantic features for response selection. Whilst our evoked analysis suggests a dominance of left ATL for semantic processing, our functional connectivity analysis also revealed significant involvement of right ATL in the more demanding semantic task. Our findings demonstrate the complementarity of evoked and functional connectivity analysis, as well as the importance of dynamic information for both types of analyses.


Showing all 801 results

Trevor W. Robbins2311137164437
Simon Baron-Cohen172773118071
Edward T. Bullmore165746112463
John R. Hodges14981282709
Barbara J. Sahakian14561269190
Steven Williams144137586712
Alan D. Baddeley13746789497
John S. Duncan13089879193
Adrian M. Owen10745251298
John D. Pickard10762842479
Dorothy V. M. Bishop10437737096
David M. Clark10237040943
David K. Menon10273240046
Karalyn Patterson10129140802
Roger A. Barker10162039728
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