Education•New York, New York, United States•
About: Columbia University is a education organization based out in New York, New York, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Poison control. The organization has 95695 authors who have published 224027 publications receiving 12838453 citations. The organization is also known as: Columbia University in the City of New York & King's College of New York.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In addition to making criteria-based diagnoses of depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 is also a reliable and valid measure of depression severity, which makes it a useful clinical and research tool.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: While considerable attention has focused on improving the detection of depression, assessment of severity is also important in guiding treatment decisions. Therefore, we examined the validity of a brief, new measure of depression severity.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed an evolutionary theory of the capabilities and behavior of business firms operating in a market environment, including both general discussion and the manipulation of specific simulation models consistent with that theory.
Abstract: This study develops an evolutionary theory of the capabilities and behavior of business firms operating in a market environment. It includes both general discussion and the manipulation of specific simulation models consistent with that theory. The analysis outlines the differences between an evolutionary theory of organizational and industrial change and a neoclassical microeconomic theory. The antecedents to the former are studies by economists like Schumpeter (1934) and Alchian (1950). It is contrasted with the orthodox theory in the following aspects: while the evolutionary theory views firms as motivated by profit, their actions are not assumed to be profit maximizing, as in orthodox theory; the evolutionary theory stresses the tendency of most profitable firms to drive other firms out of business, but, in contrast to orthodox theory, does not concentrate on the state of industry equilibrium; and evolutionary theory is related to behavioral theory: it views firms, at any given time, as having certain capabilities and decision rules, as well as engaging in various ‘search' operations, which determines their behavior; while orthodox theory views firm behavior as relying on the use of the usual calculus maximization techniques. The theory is then made operational by the use of simulation methods. These models use Markov processes and analyze selection equilibrium, responses to changing factor prices, economic growth with endogenous technical change, Schumpeterian competition, and Schumpeterian tradeoff between static Pareto-efficiency and innovation. The study's discussion of search behavior complicates the evolutionary theory. With search, the decision making process in a firm relies as much on past experience as on innovative alternatives to past behavior. This view combines Darwinian and Lamarkian views on evolution; firms are seen as both passive with regard to their environment, and actively seeking alternatives that affect their environment. The simulation techniques used to model Schumpeterian competition reveal that there are usually winners and losers in industries, and that the high productivity and profitability of winners confer advantages that make further success more likely, while decline breeds further decline. This process creates a tendency for concentration to develop even in an industry initially composed of many equal-sized firms. However, the experiments conducted reveal that the growth of concentration is not inevitable; for example, it tends to be smaller when firms focus their searches on imitating rather than innovating. At the same time, industries with rapid technological change tend to grow more concentrated than those with slower progress. The abstract model of Schumpeterian competition presented in the study also allows to see more clearly the public policy issues concerning the relationship between technical progress and market structure. The analysis addresses the pervasive question of whether industry concentration, with its associated monopoly profits and reduced social welfare, is a necessary cost if societies are to obtain the benefits of technological innovation. (AT)
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present guidelines for choosing among six different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n target are rated by k judges, and the confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed.
Abstract: Reliability coefficients often take the form of intraclass correlation coefficients. In this article, guidelines are given for choosing among six different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n target are rated by k judges. Relevant to the choice of the coefficient are the appropriate statistical model for the reliability and the application to be made of the reliability results. Confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed.
TL;DR: Graphene is established as the strongest material ever measured, and atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.
Abstract: We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.
TL;DR: The electronic properties of ultrathin crystals of molybdenum disulfide consisting of N=1,2,…,6 S-Mo-S monolayers have been investigated by optical spectroscopy and the effect of quantum confinement on the material's electronic structure is traced.
Abstract: The electronic properties of ultrathin crystals of molybdenum disulfide consisting of N=1,2,…,6 S-Mo-S monolayers have been investigated by optical spectroscopy Through characterization by absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity spectroscopy, we trace the effect of quantum confinement on the material's electronic structure With decreasing thickness, the indirect band gap, which lies below the direct gap in the bulk material, shifts upwards in energy by more than 06 eV This leads to a crossover to a direct-gap material in the limit of the single monolayer Unlike the bulk material, the MoS₂ monolayer emits light strongly The freestanding monolayer exhibits an increase in luminescence quantum efficiency by more than a factor of 10⁴ compared with the bulk material
Showing all 96627 results
|Walter C. Willett||334||2399||413322|
|Douglas G. Altman||253||1001||680344|
|David J. Hunter||213||1836||207050|
|Irving L. Weissman||201||1141||172504|
|Rakesh K. Jain||200||1467||177727|
|Robert M. Califf||196||1561||167961|
|Lewis C. Cantley||196||748||169037|
|Stephen V. Faraone||188||1427||140298|
|Patrick W. Serruys||186||2427||173210|
|Stuart H. Orkin||186||715||112182|
|Eric R. Kandel||184||603||113560|
|David L. Kaplan||177||1944||146082|
|Richard B. Lipton||176||2110||140776|
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