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Columbia University

EducationNew York, New York, United States
About: Columbia University is a(n) education organization based out in New York, New York, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Poison control. The organization has 95695 authors who have published 224027 publication(s) receiving 12838453 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Columbia University in the City of New York & King's College of New York. more

Topics: Population, Poison control, Mental health more

Showing all 95695 results

Walter C. Willett3342399413322
Douglas G. Altman2531001680344
Yi Chen2174342293080
David J. Hunter2131836207050
Irving L. Weissman2011141172504
Rakesh K. Jain2001467177727
Robert M. Califf1961561167961
Lewis C. Cantley196748169037
Stephen V. Faraone1881427140298
Patrick W. Serruys1862427173210
Stuart H. Orkin186715112182
Eric R. Kandel184603113560
David L. Kaplan1771944146082
Richard B. Lipton1762110140776
David Haussler172488224960

Open accessPosted Content
Sidney G. Winter1, Richard R. Nelson2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This study develops an evolutionary theory of the capabilities and behavior of business firms operating in a market environment. It includes both general discussion and the manipulation of specific simulation models consistent with that theory. The analysis outlines the differences between an evolutionary theory of organizational and industrial change and a neoclassical microeconomic theory. The antecedents to the former are studies by economists like Schumpeter (1934) and Alchian (1950). It is contrasted with the orthodox theory in the following aspects: while the evolutionary theory views firms as motivated by profit, their actions are not assumed to be profit maximizing, as in orthodox theory; the evolutionary theory stresses the tendency of most profitable firms to drive other firms out of business, but, in contrast to orthodox theory, does not concentrate on the state of industry equilibrium; and evolutionary theory is related to behavioral theory: it views firms, at any given time, as having certain capabilities and decision rules, as well as engaging in various ‘search' operations, which determines their behavior; while orthodox theory views firm behavior as relying on the use of the usual calculus maximization techniques. The theory is then made operational by the use of simulation methods. These models use Markov processes and analyze selection equilibrium, responses to changing factor prices, economic growth with endogenous technical change, Schumpeterian competition, and Schumpeterian tradeoff between static Pareto-efficiency and innovation. The study's discussion of search behavior complicates the evolutionary theory. With search, the decision making process in a firm relies as much on past experience as on innovative alternatives to past behavior. This view combines Darwinian and Lamarkian views on evolution; firms are seen as both passive with regard to their environment, and actively seeking alternatives that affect their environment. The simulation techniques used to model Schumpeterian competition reveal that there are usually winners and losers in industries, and that the high productivity and profitability of winners confer advantages that make further success more likely, while decline breeds further decline. This process creates a tendency for concentration to develop even in an industry initially composed of many equal-sized firms. However, the experiments conducted reveal that the growth of concentration is not inevitable; for example, it tends to be smaller when firms focus their searches on imitating rather than innovating. At the same time, industries with rapid technological change tend to grow more concentrated than those with slower progress. The abstract model of Schumpeterian competition presented in the study also allows to see more clearly the public policy issues concerning the relationship between technical progress and market structure. The analysis addresses the pervasive question of whether industry concentration, with its associated monopoly profits and reduced social welfare, is a necessary cost if societies are to obtain the benefits of technological innovation. (AT) more

Topics: Evolutionary economics (60%), Profit motive (56%), Knowledge-based theory of the firm (55%) more

22,526 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.86.2.420
Patrick E. Shrout1, Joseph L. FleissInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Reliability coefficients often take the form of intraclass correlation coefficients. In this article, guidelines are given for choosing among six different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n target are rated by k judges. Relevant to the choice of the coefficient are the appropriate statistical model for the reliability and the application to be made of the reliability results. Confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed. more

Topics: Intra-rater reliability (64%), Intraclass correlation (59%), Cronbach's alpha (58%) more

19,527 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1046/J.1525-1497.2001.016009606.X
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: While considerable attention has focused on improving the detection of depression, assessment of severity is also important in guiding treatment decisions. Therefore, we examined the validity of a brief, new measure of depression severity. more

Topics: Criterion validity (58%), Construct validity (58%), Test validity (57%) more

19,000 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1157996
Changgu Lee1, Xiaoding Wei1, Jeffrey W. Kysar1, James Hone1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
18 Jul 2008-Science
Abstract: We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime. more

Topics: Graphene oxide paper (55%), Young's modulus (55%), Monolayer (54%) more

15,863 Citations

Open accessBook
John Dewey1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1938-
Abstract: Experience and Educationis the best concise statement on education ever published by John Dewey, the man acknowledged to be the pre-eminent educational theorist of the twentieth century. Written more than two decades after Democracy and Education(Dewey's most comprehensive statement of his position in educational philosophy), this book demonstrates how Dewey reformulated his ideas as a result of his intervening experience with the progressive schools and in the light of the criticisms his theories had received. Analysing both "traditional" and "progressive" education, Dr. Dewey here insists that neither the old nor the new education is adequate and that each is miseducative because neither of them applies the principles of a carefully developed philosophy of experience. Many pages of this volume illustrate Dr. Dewey's ideas for a philosophy of experience and its relation to education. He particularly urges that all teachers and educators looking for a new movement in education should think in terms of the deeped and larger issues of education rather than in terms of some divisive "ism" about education, even such an "ism" as "progressivism." His philosophy, here expressed in its most essential, most readable form, predicates an American educational system that respects all sources of experience, on that offers a true learning situation that is both historical and social, both orderly and dynamic. more

Topics: Philosophy of education (63%), Philosophy education (62%), Education theory (59%) more

12,187 Citations

No. of papers from the Institution in previous years

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Institution's top 5 most impactful journals

Social Science Research Network

7.1K papers, 347.7K citations

The Astrophysical Journal

1.9K papers, 151.3K citations


1.8K papers, 9.8K citations


1.7K papers, 348.5K citations

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