About: COMSATS Institute of Information Technology is a education organization based out in Islamabad, Pakistan. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Heat transfer & Nanofluid. The organization has 8432 authors who have published 21218 publications receiving 340955 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The generation of mice lacking estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta -/-) is described by insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into exon 3 of the coding gene by using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to determine the role of ERbeta in bone and cardiovascular homeostasis.
Abstract: Estrogens influence the differentiation and maintenance of reproductive tissues and affect lipid metabolism and bone remodeling. Two estrogen receptors (ERs) have been identified to date, ERα and ERβ. We previously generated and studied knockout mice lacking estrogen receptor α and reported severe reproductive and behavioral phenotypes including complete infertility of both male and female mice and absence of breast tissue development. Here we describe the generation of mice lacking estrogen receptor β (ERβ −/−) by insertion of a neomycin resistance gene into exon 3 of the coding gene by using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Mice lacking this receptor develop normally and are indistinguishable grossly and histologically as young adults from their littermates. RNA analysis and immunocytochemistry show that tissues from ERβ −/− mice lack normal ERβ RNA and protein. Breeding experiments with young, sexually mature females show that they are fertile and exhibit normal sexual behavior, but have fewer and smaller litters than wild-type mice. Superovulation experiments indicate that this reduction in fertility is the result of reduced ovarian efficiency. The mutant females have normal breast development and lactate normally. Young, sexually mature male mice show no overt abnormalities and reproduce normally. Older mutant males display signs of prostate and bladder hyperplasia. Our results indicate that ERβ is essential for normal ovulation efficiency but is not essential for female or male sexual differentiation, fertility, or lactation. Future experiments are required to determine the role of ERβ in bone and cardiovascular homeostasis.
University of Ottawa1, University of Cincinnati2, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology3, University of Chicago4, Brown University5, Thomas Jefferson University6, University of Pennsylvania7, Howard University8, Harvard University9, Oregon State University10, Exponent11, Massachusetts Institute of Technology12, Technical University of Denmark13, Pfizer14, Natural Resources Defense Council15, The Humane Society of the United States16, Johns Hopkins University17, California Department of Fish and Wildlife18
TL;DR: Implementation of a new toxicity testing paradigm firmly based on human biology by transitioning from current expensive and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative endpoints to in vitro toxicity pathway assays on human cells or cell lines using robotic high-throughput screening with mechanistic quantitative parameters.
Abstract: With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal usage by transitioning from current expensive and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative endpoints to in vitro toxicity pathway assays on human cells or cell lines using robotic high-throughput screening with mechanistic quantitative parameters. Risk assessment in the exposed human population would focus on avoiding significant perturbations in these toxicity pathways. Computational systems biology models would be implemented to determine the dose-response models of perturbations of pathway function. Extrapolation of in vitro results to in vivo human blood and tissue concentrations would be based on pharmacokinetic models for the given exposure condition. This practice would enhance human relevance of test results, and would cover several test agents, compared to traditional toxicological testing strategies. As all the tools that are necessary to implement the vision are currently available or in an advanced stage of development, the key prerequisites to achieving this paradigm shift are a commitment to change in the scientific community, which could be facilitated by a broad discussion of the vision, and obtaining necessary resources to enhance current knowledge of pathway perturbations and pathway assays in humans and to implement computational systems biology models. Implementation of these strategies would result in a new toxicity testing paradigm firmly based on human biology.
Huazhong Agricultural University1, University of Queensland2, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad3, Beijing Normal University4, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology5, Wellington Management Company6, Northeast Agricultural University7, Islamia University8, King Abdulaziz University9, Linyi University10, Yangtze University11
TL;DR: A comprehensive account of conventional as well as modern approaches to deal with heat and drought stresses have been presented here and a side-by-side critical discussion on salient responses and management strategies for these two important abiotic stresses provides a unique insight into the phenomena.
Abstract: Abiotic stresses are one of the major constraints to crop production and food security worldwide. The situation has aggravated due to the drastic and rapid changes in global climate. Heat and drought stress are undoubtedly the two most important stresses having huge impact on growth and productivity of the crops. It is very important to understand the physiological, biochemical and ecological interventions related to these stresses for better management. A wide range of plant responses to these stresses could be generalized into morphological, physiological and biochemical responses. Interestingly, this review provides a detailed account of plant responses to heat and drought stresses with special focus on highlighting the commonalities and differences. Crop growth and yields are negatively affected by sub-optimal water supply and abnormal temperatures due to physical damages, physiological disruptions and biochemical changes. Both these stresses have multi-lateral impacts and therefore, complex in mechanistic action. A better understanding of plant responses to these stresses has pragmatic implication for remedies and management. A comprehensive account of conventional as well as modern approaches to deal with heat and drought stresses have also been presented here. A side-by-side critical discussion on salient responses and management strategies for these two important abiotic stresses provides a unique insight into the phenomena. A holistic approach taking into account the different management options to deal with heat and drought stress simultaneously could be a win-win approach in future.
17 Dec 2012
TL;DR: This paper addresses the existing development trends, the generic architecture of IoT, its distinguishing features and possible future applications, and forecast the key challenges associated with the development of IoT.
Abstract: The Internet is continuously changing and evolving. The main communication form of present Internet is human-human. The Internet of Things (IoT) can be considered as the future evaluation of the Internet that realizes machine-to-machine (M2M) learning. Thus, IoT provides connectivity for everyone and everything. The IoT embeds some intelligence in Internet-connected objects to communicate, exchange information, take decisions, invoke actions and provide amazing services. This paper addresses the existing development trends, the generic architecture of IoT, its distinguishing features and possible future applications. This paper also forecast the key challenges associated with the development of IoT. The IoT is getting increasing popularity for academia, industry as well as government that has the potential to bring significant personal, professional and economic benefits.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the linkages among economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness and CO2 emissions over the period of 1975Q1-2011Q4 in the case of Indonesia.
Abstract: This study examines the linkages among economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness and CO2 emissions over the period of 1975Q1-2011Q4 in the case of Indonesia. The stationary analysis is performed by using Zivot-Andrews structural break unit root test and the ARDL bounds testing approach for a long run relationship between the series in the presence of structural breaks. The causal relation between the concerned variable is examined by the VECM Granger causality technique and robustness of causal analysis is tested by innovative accounting approach (IAA). Our results confirm that the variables are cointegrated; it means that the long run relationship exists in the presence of structural break stemming in the series. The empirical findings indicate that economic growth and energy consumption increases CO2 emissions, while financial development and trade openness compact it. The VECM causality analysis has shown the feedback hypothesis between energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Economic growth and CO2 emissions are also interrelated i.e. bidirectional causality. Financial development Granger causes CO2 emissions. The study opens up a new policy insights to control the environment from degradation by using energy efficient technologies. Financial development and trade openness can also play their role in improving the environmental quality.
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|Melvin E. Andersen||83||517||26856|
|Frans P.M. Cremers||83||335||21541|
|Sang Un Ahn||82||391||22067|
|Zahoor Ali Khan||75||482||48253|
|Harvey J. Clewell||65||298||12875|
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