Cooperative Research Centre
About: Cooperative Research Centre is a(n) based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Sea ice. The organization has 7633 authors who have published 8607 publication(s) receiving 429721 citation(s).
Topics: Population, Sea ice, Autism, Antarctic sea ice, Climate change
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 May 2006-Biological Reviews
TL;DR: This article explores the special features of freshwater habitats and the biodiversity they support that makes them especially vulnerable to human activities and advocates continuing attempts to check species loss but urges adoption of a compromise position of management for biodiversity conservation, ecosystem functioning and resilience, and human livelihoods.
Abstract: Freshwater biodiversity is the over-riding conservation priority during the International Decade for Action - 'Water for Life' - 2005 to 2015. Fresh water makes up only 0.01% of the World's water and approximately 0.8% of the Earth's surface, yet this tiny fraction of global water supports at least 100000 species out of approximately 1.8 million - almost 6% of all described species. Inland waters and freshwater biodiversity constitute a valuable natural resource, in economic, cultural, aesthetic, scientific and educational terms. Their conservation and management are critical to the interests of all humans, nations and governments. Yet this precious heritage is in crisis. Fresh waters are experiencing declines in biodiversity far greater than those in the most affected terrestrial ecosystems, and if trends in human demands for water remain unaltered and species losses continue at current rates, the opportunity to conserve much of the remaining biodiversity in fresh water will vanish before the 'Water for Life' decade ends in 2015. Why is this so, and what is being done about it? This article explores the special features of freshwater habitats and the biodiversity they support that makes them especially vulnerable to human activities. We document threats to global freshwater biodiversity under five headings: overexploitation; water pollution; flow modification; destruction or degradation of habitat; and invasion by exotic species. Their combined and interacting influences have resulted in population declines and range reduction of freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Conservation of biodiversity is complicated by the landscape position of rivers and wetlands as 'receivers' of land-use effluents, and the problems posed by endemism and thus non-substitutability. In addition, in many parts of the world, fresh water is subject to severe competition among multiple human stakeholders. Protection of freshwater biodiversity is perhaps the ultimate conservation challenge because it is influenced by the upstream drainage network, the surrounding land, the riparian zone, and - in the case of migrating aquatic fauna - downstream reaches. Such prerequisites are hardly ever met. Immediate action is needed where opportunities exist to set aside intact lake and river ecosystems within large protected areas. For most of the global land surface, trade-offs between conservation of freshwater biodiversity and human use of ecosystem goods and services are necessary. We advocate continuing attempts to check species loss but, in many situations, urge adoption of a compromise position of management for biodiversity conservation, ecosystem functioning and resilience, and human livelihoods in order to provide a viable long-term basis for freshwater conservation. Recognition of this need will require adoption of a new paradigm for biodiversity protection and freshwater ecosystem management - one that has been appropriately termed 'reconciliation ecology'.
13 Sep 2007
TL;DR: A more systematic approach to locating and designing reserves has been evolving and this approach will need to be implemented if a large proportion of today's biodiversity is to exist in a future of increasing numbers of people and their demands on natural resources.
Abstract: The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversity of each region and they should separate this biodiversity from processes that threaten its persistence. Existing reserve systems throughout the world contain a biased sample of biodiversity, usually that of remote places and other areas that are unsuitable for commercial activities. A more systematic approach to locating and designing reserves has been evolving and this approach will need to be implemented if a large proportion of today's biodiversity is to exist in a future of increasing numbers of people and their demands on natural resources.
01 Oct 2002-Environmental Management
TL;DR: This literature review has focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mechanisms that link hydrology and aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes.
Abstract: The flow regime is regarded by many aquatic ecologists to be the key driver of river and floodplain wet- land ecosystems. We have focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mech- anisms that link hydrology and aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes: Firstly, flow is a major determinant of physical habitat in streams, which in turn is a major determinant of biotic com- position; Secondly, aquatic species have evolved life history strategies primarily in direct response to the natural flow regimes; Thirdly, maintenance of natural patterns of longitu- dinal and lateral connectivity is essential to the viability of populations of many riverine species; Finally, the invasion and success of exotic and introduced species in rivers is facilitated by the alteration of flow regimes. The impacts of flow change are manifest across broad taxonomic groups including riverine plants, invertebrates, and fish. Despite growing recognition of these relationships, ecologists still struggle to predict and quantify biotic responses to altered flow regimes. One obvious difficulty is the ability to distin- guish the direct effects of modified flow regimes from im- pacts associated with land-use change that often accom- panies water resource development. Currently, evidence about how rivers function in relation to flow regime and the flows that aquatic organisms need exists largely as a series of untested hypotheses. To overcome these problems, aquatic science needs to move quickly into a manipulative or experimental phase, preferably with the aims of restora- tion and measuring ecosystem response.
01 Apr 2002-Global Change Biology
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of land use changes on soil carbon stocks was reviewed and a meta-analysis of these data from 74 publications was conducted, which indicated that soil C stocks decline after land use change from pasture to plantation (−10%), native forest to plantations (−13), native forests to crop (−42), and pasture to crop (+59%), while the reverse process usually increased soil carbon and vice versa.
Abstract: The effects of land use change on soil carbon stocks are of concern in the context of international policy agendas on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation. This paper reviews the literature for the influence of land use changes on soil C stocks and reports the results of a meta analysis of these data from 74 publications. The meta analysis indicates that soil C stocks decline after land use changes from pasture to plantation (−10%), native forest to plantation (−13%), native forest to crop (−42%), and pasture to crop (−59%). Soil C stocks increase after land use changes from native forest to pasture (+ 8%), crop to pasture (+ 19%), crop to plantation (+ 18%), and crop to secondary forest (+ 53%). Wherever one of the land use changes decreased soil C, the reverse process usually increased soil carbon and vice versa. As the quantity of available data is not large and the methodologies used are diverse, the conclusions drawn must be regarded as working hypotheses from which to design future targeted investigations that broaden the database. Within some land use changes there were, however, sufficient examples to explore the role of other factors contributing to the above conclusions. One outcome of the meta analysis, especially worthy of further investigation in the context of carbon sink strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation, is that broadleaf tree plantations placed onto prior native forest or pastures did not affect soil C stocks whereas pine plantations reduced soil C stocks by 12–15%.
01 Sep 2005-Nature Biotechnology
TL;DR: There is tremendous potential for all antibody fragments either as robust diagnostic reagents, or as nonimmunogenic in vivo biopharmaceuticals with superior biodistribution and blood clearance properties.
Abstract: With 18 monoclonal antibody (mAb) products currently on the market and more than 100 in clinical trials, it is clear that engineered antibodies have come of age as biopharmaceuticals. In fact, by 2008, engineered antibodies are predicted to account for >30% of all revenues in the biotechnology market. Smaller recombinant antibody fragments (for example, classic monovalent antibody fragments (Fab, scFv)) and engineered variants (diabodies, triabodies, minibodies and single-domain antibodies) are now emerging as credible alternatives. These fragments retain the targeting specificity of whole mAbs but can be produced more economically and possess other unique and superior properties for a range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Antibody fragments have been forged into multivalent and multispecific reagents, linked to therapeutic payloads (such as radionuclides, toxins, enzymes, liposomes and viruses) and engineered for enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Recently, single antibody domains have been engineered and selected as targeting reagents against hitherto immunosilent cavities in enzymes, receptors and infectious agents. Single-domain antibodies are anticipated to significantly expand the repertoire of antibody-based reagents against the vast range of novel biomarkers being discovered through proteomics. As this review aims to show, there is tremendous potential for all antibody fragments either as robust diagnostic reagents (for example in biosensors), or as nonimmunogenic in vivo biopharmaceuticals with superior biodistribution and blood clearance properties.
Showing all 7633 results
|Eric N. Olson||206||814||144586|
|Nicholas G. Martin||192||1770||161952|
|Grant W. Montgomery||157||926||108118|
|Graham D. Farquhar||124||368||75181|
|Jie Jin Wang||120||719||54587|
|John J. McGrath||120||791||124804|
|David B. Lindenmayer||119||954||59129|
|Ashley I. Bush||116||560||57009|
|Ary A. Hoffmann||113||907||55354|
|David A. Hume||113||573||59932|
Related Institutions (5)
University of Queensland
155.7K papers, 5.7M citations
University of Melbourne
174.8K papers, 6.3M citations
University of Sydney
187.3K papers, 6.1M citations
University of New South Wales
153.6K papers, 4.8M citations
Australian National University
109.2K papers, 4.3M citations