About: Cork Institute of Technology is a based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topics: Wireless sensor network & Laser. The organization has 984 authors who have published 2144 publications receiving 50596 citations. The organization is also known as: Cork Regional Technical College & Cork IT.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries, and the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase.
Abstract: Summary Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. Findings We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19·1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127·0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125·7–128·3) in men and 122·3 mm Hg (121·0–123·6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78·7 mm Hg (77·9–79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9–77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4–27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8–22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1·13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. Interpretation During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe. Funding Wellcome Trust.
TL;DR: The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
Abstract: Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
TL;DR: A comprehensive reference for clinicians which may facilitate optimal material/device selection for peripheral nerve repair and for materials scientists, this review highlights predicate devices and evaluation methodologies, offering an insight into current deficiencies associated with state-of-the-art materials.
Abstract: Several nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) and nerve protectant wraps are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use in peripheral nerve repair. These devices cover a wide range of natural and synthetic materials, which may or may not be resorbable. This review consolidates the data pertaining to all FDA approved materials into a single reference, which emphasizes material composition alongside pre-clinical and clinical safety and efficacy (where possible). This article also summarizes the key advantages and limitations for each material as noted in the literature (with respect to the indication considered). In this context, this review provides a comprehensive reference for clinicians which may facilitate optimal material/device selection for peripheral nerve repair. For materials scientists, this review highlights predicate devices and evaluation methodologies, offering an insight into current deficiencies associated with state-of-the-art materials and may help direct new technology developments and evaluation methodologies thereof.
TL;DR: The recent increase in incidence, largely associated with infected combat troops returning from conflict zones, coupled with a dramatic increase in the incidence of multidrug-resistant strains, has significantly raised the profile of this emerging opportunistic pathogen.
Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen primarily associated with hospital-acquired infections. The recent increase in incidence, largely associated with infected combat troops returning from conflict zones, coupled with a dramatic increase in the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, has significantly raised the profile of this emerging opportunistic pathogen. Herein, we provide an overview of the pathogen, discuss some of the major factors that have led to its clinical prominence and outline some of the novel therapeutic strategies currently in development.
TL;DR: It is expected that BIM formation should not hinder the use of these phages as biocontrol agents, particularly since low levels of the pathogen are typically encountered in the environment.
Abstract: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an endemic pathogen causing a variety of human diseases including mild diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. This study concerns the exploitation of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents to eliminate the pathogen E. coli O157:H7. Two distinct lytic phages (e11/2 and e4/1c) isolated against a human strain of E. coli O157:H7, a previously isolated lytic phage (pp01), and a cocktail of all three phages were evaluated for their ability to lyse the bacterium in vivo and in vitro. Phage e11/2, pp01, and the cocktail of all three virulent phages resulted in a 5-log-unit reduction of pathogen numbers in 1 h at 37°C. However, bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIMs) emerged following the challenge. All tested BIMs had a growth rate which approximated that of the parental O157 strain, although many of these BIMs had a smaller, more coccoid cellular morphology. The frequency of BIM formation (10−6 CFU) was similar for e11/2, pp01, and the phage cocktail, while BIMs insensitive to e4/1c occurred at the higher frequency (10−4 CFU). In addition, BIMs commonly reverted to phage sensitivity within 50 generations. In an initial meat trial experiment, the phage cocktail completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from the beef meat surface in seven of nine cases. Given that the frequency of BIM formation is low (10−6 CFU) for two of the phages, allied to the propensity of these mutants to revert to phage sensitivity, we expect that BIM formation should not hinder the use of these phages as biocontrol agents, particularly since low levels of the pathogen are typically encountered in the environment.
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|Gerald F. Fitzgerald||100||421||38247|
|R. Paul Ross||96||527||40481|
|David A. Kenny||90||373||117503|
|Douwe van Sinderen||85||456||30073|
|Joseph P. Kerry||71||453||19028|
|P. T. Reynolds||56||211||9942|
|Jerry D. Murphy||53||194||9760|
|Derek W. Gilroy||52||134||16869|
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