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Institution

Cornell University

EducationIthaca, New York, United States
About: Cornell University is a(n) education organization based out in Ithaca, New York, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Gene. The organization has 102246 authors who have published 235546 publication(s) receiving 12283673 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Cornell & CUI.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A simplified, scored form of the cognitive mental status examination, the “Mini-Mental State” (MMS) which includes eleven questions, requires only 5-10 min to administer, and is therefore practical to use serially and routinely.

70,718 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Jun 1998-Nature
TL;DR: Simple models of networks that can be tuned through this middle ground: regular networks ‘rewired’ to introduce increasing amounts of disorder are explored, finding that these systems can be highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs.
Abstract: Networks of coupled dynamical systems have been used to model biological oscillators, Josephson junction arrays, excitable media, neural networks, spatial games, genetic control networks and many other self-organizing systems. Ordinarily, the connection topology is assumed to be either completely regular or completely random. But many biological, technological and social networks lie somewhere between these two extremes. Here we explore simple models of networks that can be tuned through this middle ground: regular networks 'rewired' to introduce increasing amounts of disorder. We find that these systems can be highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs. We call them 'small-world' networks, by analogy with the small-world phenomenon (popularly known as six degrees of separation. The neural network of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the power grid of the western United States, and the collaboration graph of film actors are shown to be small-world networks. Models of dynamical systems with small-world coupling display enhanced signal-propagation speed, computational power, and synchronizability. In particular, infectious diseases spread more easily in small-world networks than in regular lattices.

35,972 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death fromComorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies and further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.

34,129 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the analysis pipeline and links to raw data and processed output from the runs with and without denoising are provided.
Abstract: Supplementary Figure 1 Overview of the analysis pipeline. Supplementary Table 1 Details of conventionally raised and conventionalized mouse samples. Supplementary Discussion Expanded discussion of QIIME analyses presented in the main text; Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons; QIIME analysis notes; Expanded Figure 1 legend; Links to raw data and processed output from the runs with and without denoising.

24,116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and beta-glucans now are available and are also of interest in rumen fermentation.
Abstract: There is a need to standardize the NDF procedure. Procedures have varied because of the use of different amylases in attempts to remove starch interference. The original Bacillus subtilis enzyme Type IIIA (XIA) no longer is available and has been replaced by a less effective enzyme. For fiber work, a new enzyme 1 1The heat stable amylase, formerly Number 5426, has been changed by Sigma as of July 1991. The original procedure required .2 ml of this enzyme. The replacement. Number A3306, is four times stronger, and 50 μl are used per sample. has received AOAC approval and is rapidly displacing other amylases in analytical work. This enzyme is available from Sigma (Number A3306; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The original publications for NDF and ADF (43, 53) and the Agricultural Handbook 379 (14) are obsolete and of historical interest only. Up to date procedures should be followed. Triethylene glycol has replaced 2-ethoxyethanol because of reported toxicity. Considerable development in regard to fiber methods has occurred over the past 5 yr because of a redefinition of dietary fiber for man and monogastric animals that includes lignin and all polysaccharides resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and β-glucans now are available. The latter are also of interest in rumen fermentation. Unlike starch, their fermentations are like that of cellulose but faster and yield no lactic acid. Physical and biological properties of carbohydrate fractions are more important than their intrinsic composition.

20,607 citations


Authors

Showing all 102246 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Eric S. Lander301826525976
David Miller2032573204840
Lewis C. Cantley196748169037
Charles A. Dinarello1901058139668
Scott M. Grundy187841231821
Paul G. Richardson1831533155912
Chris Sander178713233287
David R. Williams1782034138789
David L. Kaplan1771944146082
Kari Alitalo174817114231
Richard K. Wilson173463260000
George F. Koob171935112521
Avshalom Caspi170524113583
Derek R. Lovley16858295315
Stephen B. Baylin168548188934
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2022141
202112,431
202012,135
201910,784
20189,905
20179,866