About: Cryptography Research is a based out in . It is known for research contribution in the topics: Cryptography & Key (cryptography). The organization has 131 authors who have published 202 publications receiving 17763 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••15 Aug 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine specific methods for analyzing power consumption measurements to find secret keys from tamper resistant devices. And they also discuss approaches for building cryptosystems that can operate securely in existing hardware that leaks information.
Abstract: Cryptosystem designers frequently assume that secrets will be manipulated in closed, reliable computing environments. Unfortunately, actual computers and microchips leak information about the operations they process. This paper examines specific methods for analyzing power consumption measurements to find secret keys from tamper resistant devices. We also discuss approaches for building cryptosystems that can operate securely in existing hardware that leaks information.
19 May 2019
TL;DR: Spectre as mentioned in this paper is a side channel attack that can leak the victim's confidential information via side channel to the adversary. And it can read arbitrary memory from a victim's process.
Abstract: Modern processors use branch prediction and speculative execution to maximize performance. For example, if the destination of a branch depends on a memory value that is in the process of being read, CPUs will try to guess the destination and attempt to execute ahead. When the memory value finally arrives, the CPU either discards or commits the speculative computation. Speculative logic is unfaithful in how it executes, can access the victim's memory and registers, and can perform operations with measurable side effects. Spectre attacks involve inducing a victim to speculatively perform operations that would not occur during correct program execution and which leak the victim's confidential information via a side channel to the adversary. This paper describes practical attacks that combine methodology from side channel attacks, fault attacks, and return-oriented programming that can read arbitrary memory from the victim's process. More broadly, the paper shows that speculative execution implementations violate the security assumptions underpinning numerous software security mechanisms, including operating system process separation, containerization, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, and countermeasures to cache timing and side-channel attacks. These attacks represent a serious threat to actual systems since vulnerable speculative execution capabilities are found in microprocessors from Intel, AMD, and ARM that are used in billions of devices. While makeshift processor-specific countermeasures are possible in some cases, sound solutions will require fixes to processor designs as well as updates to instruction set architectures (ISAs) to give hardware architects and software developers a common understanding as to what computation state CPU implementations are (and are not) permitted to leak.
••11 May 1997
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a theoretical model for breaking various cryptographic schemes by taking advantage of random hardware faults, including RSA and Rabin signatures, and also show how various authentication protocols, such as Fiat-Shamir and Schnorr, can be broken using hardware faults.
Abstract: We present a theoretical model for breaking various cryptographic schemes by taking advantage of random hardware faults. We show how to attack certain implementations of RSA and Rabin signatures. We also show how various authentication protocols, such as Fiat-Shamir and Schnorr, can be broken using hardware faults.
••04 May 2003
TL;DR: This paper shows how to substantially lower the degree of these equations by multiplying them by well-chosen multivariate polynomials, and is able to break Toyocrypt in 249 CPU clocks, with only 20 Kbytes of keystream, the fastest attack proposed so far.
Abstract: A classical construction of stream ciphers is to combine several LFSRs and a highly non-linear Boolean function f. Their security is usually analysed in terms of correlation attacks, that can be seen as solving a system of multivariate linear equations, true with some probability. At ICISC'02 this approach is extended to systems of higher-degree multivariate equations, and gives an attack in 292 for Toyocrypt, a Cryptrec submission. In this attack the key is found by solving an overdefined system of algebraic equations. In this paper we show how to substantially lower the degree of these equations by multiplying them by well-chosen multivariate polynomials. Thus we are able to break Toyocrypt in 249 CPU clocks, with only 20 Kbytes of keystream, the fastest attack proposed so far. We also successfully attack the Nessie submission LILI-128, within 257 CPU clocks (not the fastest attack known). In general, we show that if the Boolean function uses only a small subset (e.g. 10) of state/LFSR bits, the cipher can be broken, whatever is the Boolean function used (worst case). Our new general algebraic attack breaks stream ciphers satisfying all the previously known design criteria in at most the square root of the complexity of the previously known generic attack.
15 Aug 2018
TL;DR: It is shown that the KAISER defense mechanism for KASLR has the important (but inadvertent) side effect of impeding Meltdown, which breaks all security guarantees provided by address space isolation as well as paravirtualized environments.
Abstract: The security of computer systems fundamentally relies on memory isolation, e.g., kernel address ranges are marked as non-accessible and are protected from user access. In this paper, we present Meltdown. Meltdown exploits side effects of out-of-order execution on modern processors to read arbitrary kernel-memory locations including personal data and passwords. Out-of-order execution is an indispensable performance feature and present in a wide range of modern processors. The attack is independent of the operating system, and it does not rely on any software vulnerabilities. Meltdown breaks all security guarantees provided by address space isolation as well as paravirtualized environments and, thus, every security mechanism building upon this foundation. On affected systems, Meltdown enables an adversary to read memory of other processes or virtual machines in the cloud without any permissions or privileges, affecting millions of customers and virtually every user of a personal computer. We show that the KAISER defense mechanism for KASLR has the important (but inadvertent) side effect of impeding Meltdown. We stress that KAISER must be deployed immediately to prevent large-scale exploitation of this severe information leakage.
Showing all 131 results
|Kristin E. Lauter
|Nicolas T. Courtois
|Richard A. DeMillo
|Joppe W. Bos
|Joshua M. Jaffe
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