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Institution

Dartmouth College

EducationHanover, New Hampshire, United States
About: Dartmouth College is a(n) education organization based out in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Health care. The organization has 20740 authors who have published 51426 publication(s) receiving 2796969 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Dartmouth.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The optical constants $n$ and $k$ were obtained for the noble metals (copper, silver, and gold) from reflection and transmission measurements on vacuum-evaporated thin films at room temperature, in the spectral range 0.5-6.5 eV. The film-thickness range was 185-500 \AA{}. Three optical measurements were inverted to obtain the film thickness $d$ as well as $n$ and $k$. The estimated error in $d$ was \ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{} 2 \AA{}, and that in $n$, $k$ was less than 0.02 over most of the spectral range. The results in the film-thickness range 250-500 \AA{} were independent of thickness, and were unchanged after vacuum annealing or aging in air. The free-electron optical effective masses and relaxation times derived from the results in the near infrared agree satisfactorily with previous values. The interband contribution to the imaginary part of the dielectric constant was obtained by subtracting the free-electron contribution. Some recent theoretical calculations are compared with the results for copper and gold. In addition, some other recent experiments are critically compared with our results.

15,901 citations

Posted Content
Abstract: This paper examines legal rules covering protection of corporate shareholders and creditors, the origin of these rules, and the quality of their enforcement in 49 countries. The results show that common law countries generally have the best, and French civil law countries the worst, legal protections of investors, with German and Scandinavian civil law countries located in the middle. We also find that concentration of ownership of shares in the largest public companies is negatively related to investor protections, consistent with the hypothesis that small, diversified shareholders are unlikely to be important in countries that fail to protect their rights.

13,910 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A series of stages for development of the embryo of the zebrafish, Danio (Brachydanio) rerio is described, providing for flexibility and continued evolution of the staging series as the authors learn more about development in this species.
Abstract: We describe a series of stages for development of the embryo of the zebrafish, Danio (Brachydanio) rerio. We define seven broad periods of embryogenesis--the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, pharyngula, and hatching periods. These divisions highlight the changing spectrum of major developmental processes that occur during the first 3 days after fertilization, and we review some of what is known about morphogenesis and other significant events that occur during each of the periods. Stages subdivide the periods. Stages are named, not numbered as in most other series, providing for flexibility and continued evolution of the staging series as we learn more about development in this species. The stages, and their names, are based on morphological features, generally readily identified by examination of the live embryo with the dissecting stereomicroscope. The descriptions also fully utilize the optical transparancy of the live embryo, which provides for visibility of even very deep structures when the embryo is examined with the compound microscope and Nomarski interference contrast illumination. Photomicrographs and composite camera lucida line drawings characterize the stages pictorially. Other figures chart the development of distinctive characters used as staging aid signposts.

9,606 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Sep 2004-Nature
TL;DR: Evidence is mounting that animal miRNAs are more numerous, and their regulatory impact more pervasive, than was previously suspected.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate the expression of complementary messenger RNAs. Hundreds of miRNA genes have been found in diverse animals, and many of these are phylogenetically conserved. With miRNA roles identified in developmental timing, cell death, cell proliferation, haematopoiesis and patterning of the nervous system, evidence is mounting that animal miRNAs are more numerous, and their regulatory impact more pervasive, than was previously suspected.

9,301 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Mar 2007
TL;DR: A theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multi-agent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, time-delays, and performance guarantees is provided.
Abstract: This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multi-agent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, time-delays, and performance guarantees. An overview of basic concepts of information consensus in networks and methods of convergence and performance analysis for the algorithms are provided. Our analysis framework is based on tools from matrix theory, algebraic graph theory, and control theory. We discuss the connections between consensus problems in networked dynamic systems and diverse applications including synchronization of coupled oscillators, flocking, formation control, fast consensus in small-world networks, Markov processes and gossip-based algorithms, load balancing in networks, rendezvous in space, distributed sensor fusion in sensor networks, and belief propagation. We establish direct connections between spectral and structural properties of complex networks and the speed of information diffusion of consensus algorithms. A brief introduction is provided on networked systems with nonlocal information flow that are considerably faster than distributed systems with lattice-type nearest neighbor interactions. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the role of small-world effects on the speed of consensus algorithms and cooperative control of multivehicle formations

8,696 citations


Authors

Showing all 20740 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Richard A. Flavell2311328205119
Stuart H. Orkin186715112182
Paul G. Richardson1831533155912
Kenneth C. Anderson1781138126072
Yang Yang1642704144071
Michael B. Sporn15755994605
Kun-Liang Guan14342794520
Joseph E. LeDoux13947891500
Edward L. Glaeser13755083601
Carl Nathan13543091535
Nikhil C. Munshi13490667349
George A. Bray131896100975
Valerie W. Rusch13158173809
Kim A. Eagle12982375160
Gerald R. Crabtree12837160973
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202223
20212,599
20202,486
20192,181
20182,085
20172,380